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Saturday, May 8, 2010

Steel Type and Uses

There are five major classifications of steels: carbon steel, alloy steel, high-strength low-alloy steel, stainless steel and tool steel.

Carbon steels are the most common, containing various amounts of carbon, produce everything from machines to bedsprings to bobby pins.

Alloy steels have definite amounts of vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, silicon and cooper. Alloy steels produce gears, carving knives and even roller skates.

Stainless steels have chromium, nickel amongst other alloy elements which sustains their color and reaction to rust. Stainless steel products include pipes, space capsules, surgical equipment to kitchen equipment.

Last but not least, tool steels have tungsten, molybdenum amongst other alloy elements. These elements create the strength and ability of the tool steel products, which include parts for manufacturing operations as well as machinery.

The varying amounts of carbon, amongst other elements in each of the types of steel create a variety in densities or specific gravities. (Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of a material's density to that of water.)

Stainless steels are the most dense, coming in at 8000 kg/m3. Though the densities vary, the density of steel is about 7700 kg/m3. The density of steel are measured in g/cm3, kg/m3, kg/L and lb/f3, with kg/m3 being the more commonly used measurement.
 
Below list shows Density (g/cm3) with in bracket
1.Low Alloy & Alloy Steels (7.60)
2.Stainless Steels MIM-316L (7.80)
3.Stainless Steels 304 L (7.75)
4.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-430L (7.50)
5.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-Fe-50%Ni (7.70)
6.Controlled Expansion Alloy Kovar (F-15 Alloy) (8.00)

Henry Bessemer created the Bessemer process in 1856 to manufacture steel cheaply.
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