Sunday, July 2, 2017

Concreting Precautions

Dear Readers,

No construction activities will be taken without concreting, Let us see the precaution works before concreting. Proper concreting of RCC Columns, pedestals and footings is needed to ensure desired strength and durability of these structural members. Improper method of concreting may lead to corrosion of steel reinforcement due to pores, cracks in concrete and concrete may not achieve its target strength on setting. This may also lead to failure of columns, pedestals or footings on during occupancy of the structure.

Things to keep in mind before starting concrete works at site are:

1. Formwork inspection for strength, leakage and surface finish.

2. Reinforcement inspection as per drawing, lap length, correct lapping guidelines as per code,

3. Inspection for concrete cover to reinforcement

4. Inspection for alignment of structural member as per drawing

5. Availability of sufficient construction material at site

6. Availability of concrete vibrators,

7. Proper safety PPEs and safety measures,

8. Proper ratio of concrete mix should be confirmed,

9. Availability of slump testing equipment,

10. Availability of cube casting equipment.

After the above inspection is done and found satisfactory, concreting work should start. 

Concreting of RCC columns, pedestals and footings should start from the center of vertical bars and go towards the ends. After placement of sufficient quantity, concrete should be vibrated at regular intervals so that the concrete spreads evenly on all sides. Over vibration of concrete should be avoided. Over vibration of concrete leads to segregation of coarse aggregates which settles at the bottom making the mix weak.

Proper keys should be provided in the center of column reinforcement and walls. if the concreting has to be stopped for the day, all upper surfaces of column and walls should be made rough by wire brush after initial setting of concrete for joints with later pour of concrete.
This is required to provide a proper grip between concrete of stem part with footing and walls and foundations. Cement and sand slurry of 1:1 mix should be applied on the footing and foundations before column stem and wall concreting is started, to avoid separation of stem/ wall where a cold joint may be formed.

After the concreting of footing is complete, immediately in a day or two starters for column and wall should be casted with proper alignment and again the upper surface of starter should be made rough. This can be easily achieved simply by spreading and light pressing coarse aggregates particles when concrete is still green in such a way that part of coarse aggregate is outside and part goes inside.

This method of making top surface rough is to be adopted along with providing key at all places in columns, pedestals, vertical walls which are always concreted after concreting of footing and rafts concreting is over (approximately two or three days letter). These measures provide a proper grip between the surfaces. In addition to above dowels in between outer main bars of wall and column are inserted when concrete is wet to provide further grip between old and new concrete surfaces.

 These dowels are 600 to 800 mm cut pieces of reinforcement bars, which are inserted in green/wet concrete such a way that half length is projecting and half length is inside concrete.
Wish you all the best for excellent concreting. Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, June 4, 2017


Dear Readers,

Turnbuckle is a device that usually consists of a link with screw threads at both ends, which is turned to bring the ends closer together. It is also known as stretching screw or bottle screw, it is used in hoisting or rigging operations. This should be of weld less construction and fabricated from alloy steel.
A turnbuckle is a 3-piece metal coupling device, usually comprised of internal screw threads along-with a long sleeve at both ends. It normally consists of two threaded eye bolts, one screwed into each end of a small metal frame, one with a left-hand thread and the other with a right-hand thread. The tension can be adjusted by rotating the frame / central nut. So that they can be pulled together or pushed farther.
The buckle is rotated clockwise, the screws eject out of the body, thereby releasing tension. And when it is turned in anti-clockwise direction, the screws on the other hand are driven towards the center, thereby increasing tension. The threaded regions of the turnbuckle either feature a hook or screw-eye at the non-threaded end.
It is used to fasten wires, cables, ropes, or shafts, which are either attached to an anchor point or to other cables, including ropes and shafts. When they are supplied with hook end fittings, ensure that the hooks are fitted with safety catches.
If the turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, it is extremely important to lock the frame to the end fittings to prevent it from turning and loosening. Lock nuts or jam nuts should not be used and add greatly to the load in the screw thread. Use wire instead.
Turnbuckles should be inspected frequently for cracks in the end fittings, deformed or bent rods and bodies, cracks and bends around the internally threaded portion and signs of thread damage.

Monday, May 1, 2017


Dear Readers,
Wish You a Happy May Day-2017

Following three industries where normally unskilled manpower are being deployed
·         Construction Industries –Applicable act is BOCW Act, 1996
·         Manufacturing Industries – Applicable act is Factories Act
·         Mining Industries – Applicable act is Mines Act
Now, let us discuss about BOCW act. It is short form of Building and Other Construction Workers' Welfare Cess Act, 1996

Normally in construction Industries, we used to follow the Contract Labour Act, 1971, and we take Labour License before commencement of Construction Job. In that Act, normally the details are given about the Contract Workforce, Obtaining Labour License Procedure, Welfare Measures, and all about the contract Workmen. The Government felt that the act is not having the uniqueness.
Hence in 1996, Indian government introduced the Building & Other Construction Workers Act, (in Short, BOCW Act), BOCW Rules and BOCW Welfare Cess Act, In BOCW Act & Rules it has given the direction about the Welfare measures to Workmen, Safety Precautions and many Technical Aspects about the Tools, Tackles, Instruments, Machineries, Lifting Appliances, its maintenance, inspection, etc. Medical Facilities required to be given to the injured workmen, Periodical Medical Checkup for drivers, operators, food handlers, etc., Pre-employment Medical Checkup for every workmen.
In this Act, for implementation purpose the Government needs fund. So they implemented the BOCW Welfare Act, which made the provision to collect 1% minimum and Maximum of 2% of the Cost of Construction / Works carried out during the Financial Year to be paid as BOCWW Cess to the BOCWW Cess Board.
Some of the Key Points are below.
·         Cess came into force on 26th March, 1998

·         This act is applicable immediately on commencement of Job

·         The Principal Employer and the contractors, both are liable for this Cess

·         The responsibility of Principal Employer to make the payment of Cess.

·         The BOCW Cess is payable to the Government (BOCW Welfare Commissioner of State)

·         Cess rate not exceeding two percentage, but not less than one percentage of the cost of construction incurred by an employer.

·         Cess shall not include the Cost of land and any compensation paid or payable to a worker or his kin under the Workmen's Compensation Act. 1923.

·         BOCW act does not include any building or other construction work to which the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948), or the Mines Act, 1952 (35 of 1952), apply.

·         Cess is not refundable in any case. However, the amount of compensation paid to the workers during that year, can be deducted from the Cess payable.

·         Cess shall be paid by an employer,

o   If the project duration is less than a year, within thirty days of completion of the construction project or within thirty days of the date on which assessment of Cess payable is finalised, whichever is earlier, to the Cess collector.

o   If the duration of the project or construction work exceeds one year, Cess shall be paid within thirty days of completion of one year from the date of commencement of work and every year thereafter at the notified rates on the cost of construction incurred during the relevant period.

·         Once Factories Act is implemented there the BOCW act will get ceased.

·         Once the Factory fencing is made excluding the expansion project then Factories Act is not applicable and only BOCW will be applicable to that expansion project.

·         If Construction area falls within the factory premises then BOCW Act cannot be applicable and only Factories Act will be applicable.

·         For Registration under BOCW Act is exempted for those who got covered by Factories Act and Mines Act and the construction work carried out for self and the cost is within 10 Lakhs.

·         Generally ESI Coverage is not applicable for Construction Industries and not for BOCW Act. But if your construction Activities are being done in the premises of Factories or your principal employer is covered under ESI, then obviously you also required to make payment of ESI as 1.75% Employee Share and 4.75% Employer Share.
The above views are my personal views from the study which I have made on this subject. There is a need to take up the ambiguities in this entire enactment
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Abbreviations (16) Acre (2) ANSI (1) Anti friction bearing (2) Apothecaries Mass (1) Avoirdupois Mass (1) AWG (4) AWS (1) BCR 295 (2) Beam (18) Bearings (5) Blasting & Painting (3) Blogoversary (2) Bolt (4) CAR A/C (1) Cartoon (2) Cent (2) CHANNEL (7) Chequered Plate (1) Chinese (2) Civil (2) Classification (1) Cleaning (2) Cold Rolled Steel (2) Column Section (1) Computer (1) Concrete (1) Construction Industry (4) Conversion Table (2) Crane Rail (2) Density (1) Drill bit (1) Drill gauge (1) Drilling (1) EHS (1) Ellipcon Steel (1) Elliptical Hollow Section (1) EN 10083-3 (1) EN 10219 (1) Engineer Day (5) Engineering Miracle (2) European Steel (3) Fibre Rope (3) Fire (1) FLAT (1) floating crane (1) Flood (1) GAUGE (9) General (20) Greetings (4) H-beam (4) Handrail (1) Heavy Weight Beam (1) Helmet (1) HEXAGOAN (1) Hollow Rectangle (3) Hollow Square (5) Hollow Steel (10) Hot rolled Steel (25) HSS (9) I-Beam (2) Information (5) Informations (4) Introduce (4) IPE (3) IS 1173 (5) IS 1786 (1) IS 3443 (2) IS 4923 (2) IS 808 (15) ISA (2) ISCR (1) ISHB (3) ISJB (4) ISJC (2) ISLB (3) ISLC (2) ISMB (4) ISMC (2) ISMCP (1) ISNT (2) ISSC (2) ISWB (3) JIS G3466 (1) Junior Beam (2) Junior Channel (3) Labour Law (2) Land Measurement (2) Light Beam (1) Light Channel (3) LPG Cylinder (1) Mass (2) Measurement (3) Metals (4) Mile Stone (2) Music Wire (4) MWG (6) Numbers (3) OCTOGAN (1) Painting (3) Parallel Flange Channel (1) PFC (1) PIPE (1) Plastics (2) PPE (1) Precautions (2) Rain (1) Rebar (1) Reinforcement Rod (1) Reinforcemnt Steel (1) Reo (1) Rigging (7) River on River (1) Rope (6) ROUND (1) Safety (9) Scale (1) Self Explanatory (4) SEP (4) Short cut key (1) Sling (1) Slit Tee (1) Specific Gravity (3) SQUARE (1) Steel (17) Steel Beam (6) Steel Section (6) Steel Section Type (5) Structural Steel (51) Surface Preparation (3) SWG (4) SWL (1) Technical (5) Tee Section (5) Thanks (6) Tools & Tackles (2) Torque (5) Troy Mass (1) TUBE (1) Turnbuckle (1) UB (2) UC (2) Unit of Mass (1) UNIT WEIGHT (44) Universal Beam (1) universal Column (2) Water (2) Weight (8) Welding (3) Wide Flange Beam (2) Wind (6) Wind Speed (4) Wire Rope (2) Wishes (11) WWD (1)


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