Sunday, December 3, 2017

Dry Ice Blasting

Dear Readers,

Wish You a Happy Winter, During winter let us discuss about surface cleaning with dry ice!
This new development is quickly expanding around the world. One system uses small rice pellets of dry ice shooting them out of the jet nozzle with compressed air.
Dry ice blasting is known by several names like dry ice cleaning, CO2 blasting and dry ice dusting. It is a kind of carbon di oxide cleaning, where dry ice in the solid form of carbon di oxide, is accelerated in a pressurised stream and directed in the surface in order to clean it. This method is similar to other forms of abrasive blasting such as sandblasting, or soda blasting substituted for dry ice as a blasting medium.
This method is superior to sandblasting because the dry ice is soft enough not to pit or damage the underlying surface. Since the dry ice evaporates completely as a gas it leaves no wastes. Only the material being removed must be disposed of.
Dry ice blasting is the superior alternative to sand blasting, short blasting, soda blasting, water blasting and hand cleaning.
Advantages of dry ice blasting:
·         No preparation required prior to cleaning
·         No need to dismantle machines for cleaning. The pellets easily reach into the smallest nooks and corners.

·         Minimal machine downtimes

·         Environmentally friendly cleaning

·         Without additional chemicals or spray agents

·         Surface are not damaged

·         No residues

1.   The loud noise produced requires protective ear equipment and may cause irritation to other people nearby. Although new machines are much quitter.

2.   Effective can only occur in a straight line of sight from the dry ice jet nozzle. Sometimes parts can be dissembled to help.

3.   Large amount of carbon di oxide are released which can be harmful if not ventilated out of space.

For More Details about Sand Blasting Click Here
For More Details about Surface preparation for Steel Click Here 

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Welding Positions

Dear Readers,
In Construction Industry any conversation around welding starts with a discussion on welding position, it is mandatory to qualify the welder. At site welding activity starts with welder qualification. The American Welding Society (AWS) has defined the four basic welding positions. The same positions is followed in construction as well as welding related industries.
The four basic welding positions are: flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead. An Alpha numeric is used to identify the position. Eg. 4F & 2G First number is used to define the position and alphabetic is used for the weld.

1 = Flat Position
2 = Horizontal Position
3 = Vertical Position
4 = Overhead Position
F = Fillet Weld
G = Groove Weld

1 refers to a flat position, either 1F or 1G
2 refers to a horizontal position, either 2F or 2G
3 is a vertical position, either 3F or 3G
4 is an overhead position, either 4F or 4G

The 1G and 5G horizontal and 2G vertical positions refer to the pipe position.
6G is an inclined position

Flat Position Welding: This type of welding is performed from the upper side of the joint. The face of the weld is approximately horizontal. The common term for this kind of weld is called, 'flat position' but it is also referred to as the 'down hand' position.

Horizontal Position Welding: In horizontal welding, the weld axis is approximately horizontal, but the weld type dictates the complete definition. For a fillet weld, welding is performed on the upper side of an approximately horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical surface. For a groove weld, the face of the weld lies in an approximately vertical plane.

Vertical Position Welding: In vertical position welding, the axis of the weld is approximately vertical. When welding is done on a vertical surface, the molten metal has a tendency to run downward and pile up.

Overhead Position Welding: Overhead welding is performed from the underside of a joint. In overhead welding, the metal deposited tends to drop or sag on the plate, causing the bead to have a high crown.

The welding positions explained above are commonly used by codes and industrial practice when qualifying welders and job execution.

For More Details about Welding Click Here

Sunday, October 8, 2017

Weights of Steel Wire Rope

Dear Readers,

Wire ropes are key members for erection activities. During erection scheme finalization it is very much essential to know the self weight of rope. Lifting weight calculation including the weight of erection object, Rope weight, Tools & Tackles weight. Steel wire rope weight is below. Weights are given per 100 Meter.
For More Details about Steel Wire Rope Click Here
For More Details about SWL for Mechanically Spliced Slings Click Here
Best Quote : Whenever you want to know how rich you are?
Never count your currency, just try to Drop a Tear and count how many hands reach out to WIPE that- that is true richness.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Engineer Day - 2017

Dear Readers,
Engineer Diary bringing to you a very Happy and Memorable Engineer Day Wishes.

Dear Readers,

Click here to get more
Engineer Diary Wishes \\\" Wish You a Happy Engineer Day\\\"
Crane & Craneman
Provided by MasterGreetings.com

“Success in any profession or trade is due largely to the capacity individuality, integrity, Foresight, hard work of the person who undertakes it and it depends on man’s own exertions.”

Sunday, September 3, 2017

Weld Joints

Welds are made at the junction of the various pieces that make up the weldment. The junctions of parts, or joints, are defined as the location where two or more members are to be joined. The five basic types of welding joints are listed below.

1). Butt Joint (B). A joint between two members lying approximately in the same plane. 
2). Corner Joint (C). A joint between two members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of an angle. 
3). Edge Joint (E). A joint between the edges of two or more parallel or mainly parallel members. 
4). Lap Joint (L). A joint between two overlapping members. 
5). Tee Joint (T). A joint between two members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of a T.

In order to produce weldments, it is necessary to combine the joint types with weld types to produce weld joints for joining separate members. Each weld type can not always be combined with each joint type to make a weld joint. Below table shows the welds applicable to the basic joints.

For More Details about Welding Symbol Click Here
For More Details about classification of Electrode Click Here

Sunday, August 6, 2017

Surface Preparation- SSPC Standard

Dear Readers,

SSPC is a short form of Steel Structure Painting Council.
SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings was founded in 1950 as the Steel Structures Painting Council, a non-profit professional society concerned with the use of coatings to protect industrial steel structures. SSPC creates, publishes and maintain standards for coatings that protect and preserve concrete, steel and other industrial and marine structures and surfaces. These standards address surface preparation, coating selection, coating application, environmental regulations and industry health and safety issues to the coating industry.
SP1 - Solvent Cleaning: The method of solvent cleaning is intended to remove “all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and all other soluble contaminants from steel surfaces.” by cleaning with solvent, vapour, alkali, emulsion or steam.

SP2 - Hand Tools Cleaning: This standard covers the removal of loose mill scale, loose rust, loose paint, and other loose detrimental foreign matter from surfaces with the use of non-powered hand tools. Cleaning by chipping, scraping, sanding and wire brushing to a specific degree. Equivalent to ISO St2 Grade.

SP3 - Power tool cleaning: A mechanical method of surface preparation widely used in industry and involving the use of power sanders or wire brushes, power chipping hammers, abrasive grinding wheels, needle guns etc. Although usually more effective than hand tool cleaning, it is not considered adequate for use under severe exposure conditions or for immersion applications. Equivalent to ISO St3 Grade.

SP4 - Flame Clean: Removal of all loose scale, rust and other detrimental foreign matter by passing high temperature, high velocity oxy-acetylene flames over the entire surface, followed by wire brushing. Surface should also be free of oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts and other contaminants.

SP5 - White Metal Blast Cleaning: The removal of all visible rust, mill scale, paint and contaminants, leaving the metal uniformly white or grey in appearance. This is the ultimate in blast cleaning. Use where maximum performance of protective coatings is necessary due to exceptionally severe conditions such as constant immersion in water or liquid chemicals. Equivalent to ISO Sa3 Grade and NACE #1 Definition.

SP6 - Commercial Blast Cleaning: All oil, grease, dirt, rust scale and foreign matter are completely removed from the surface and all rust, mill scale and old paint are completely removed by abrasive blasting except for slight shadows, streaks or discolorations caused by rust stain, mill scale oxides or slight, tight resides of paint or coating that remain.
 If the surface is pitted, slight residue of rust or paint may be found in the bottom of pits; at least two-thirds of each square inch of surface area shall be free of all visible residues and the remainder shall be limited to the light residues mentioned above. Equivalent to ISO Sa2 Grade and NACE #3 Definition.

SP7 - Brush Off Blast Cleaning: A method in which all oil, grease, dirt, rust scale, loose mill scale, loose rust and loose paint or coatings are removed completely. Tight mill scale and tightly-adhered rust, paint and coatings are permitted to remain. However all mill scale and rust must have been exposed to the abrasive blast pattern sufficiently to expose numerous flecks of the underlying metal fairly uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Equivalent to ISO Sa1 Grade and NACE #4 Definition.

SP8 – Pickling: Complete removal of rust and mill scale by acid pickling, duplex pickling or electrolytic pickling.

SP9 - Weather and Blast: Weathering to remove all or part of the mill scale followed by one of the blast cleaning standards.

SP10 - Near White Blast Cleaning: In this method, all oil, grease, dirt, mill scale, rust, corrosion products, oxides, paint or other foreign matter have been completely removed from the surface by abrasive blasting, except for very light shadows, very slight streaks or slight discolorations caused by rust stain, mill scale oxides or slight, tight residues of paint or coating. Blast cleaning nearly to “White Metal” cleanliness, until at least 95% of the surface area is free of all visible residues. Equivalent to ISO Sa2.5 Grade and NACE #2.

SP11 - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal: Utilizing same equipment as Power Tool Cleaning to remove all visible coatings and contaminants to bare metal substrate. It will be applicable where abrasive blasting is not feasible or permissible.

SP12 - Surface Preparation and Cleaning of Metals by Water jetting Prior to Recoating: Water jetting is the use of standard jetting from a nozzle at high pressures (10,000 psi or higher) to prepare a surface for coating. Intended primarily for carbon steel, but applicable on other metals, water jetting does not create a profile on the metal substrate. However, metals with an existing profile acceptable for painting can be cleaned with water jetting to expose the existing profile. Water jetting will remove all loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose coatings uniformly.

SP13 - Surface Preparation of Concrete: Describes requirements for mechanical, chemical and thermal methods of concrete surface preparation to improve the adhesion and longevity of coating systems. This standard applies to all types of cementitious surfaces including cast-in-place concrete floors and walls, precast slabs, masonry walls, and shotcrete surfaces.

SP14 - Industrial Blast Cleaning

SP15 - Commercial Grade Power-Tool Cleaning

SP16 - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning of Coated and Uncoated Galvanized Steel, Stainless Steels, and Non-Ferrous Metals.

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Unit Weight of Chinese I Beam

Dear Readers,
For Chinese Steel section Beams are mentioned as “I “or “H " followed by number. To find out the size of section is, shown number multiple by 10 is the size of member.

For Example I20 means I section 200 mm depth. Simultaneously the beam sizes are same but width or flange size is different then suffix a, b, c is shown.

For example I20a & I20b, both are 200 beam. However width of flange is 100 and 102 mm respectively, also thickness of web also changes. While designating the beam Depth and width only mentioned. I20a means Beam 200 X 100 and I20b means Beam 200 X 102. Unit Weight of I Beam section is below.

Generally Chinese Steel Grades are Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255 and Q275 is used for Structural works. steel grades by the yield point of the letter on behalf of (Q) and yield point value is mentioned and sub grade A, B, C & D are used for further classification. For Example Q235A means, it is a carbon steel and having maximum yield strength of 235 Mpa.
For More Details about Chinese Channel Click Here
For More Details about Chinese Steel Standards Click Here

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Concreting Precautions

Dear Readers,

No construction activities will be taken without concreting, Let us see the precaution works before concreting. Proper concreting of RCC Columns, pedestals and footings is needed to ensure desired strength and durability of these structural members. Improper method of concreting may lead to corrosion of steel reinforcement due to pores, cracks in concrete and concrete may not achieve its target strength on setting. This may also lead to failure of columns, pedestals or footings on during occupancy of the structure.

Things to keep in mind before starting concrete works at site are:

1. Formwork inspection for strength, leakage and surface finish.

2. Reinforcement inspection as per drawing, lap length, correct lapping guidelines as per code,

3. Inspection for concrete cover to reinforcement

4. Inspection for alignment of structural member as per drawing

5. Availability of sufficient construction material at site

6. Availability of concrete vibrators,

7. Proper safety PPEs and safety measures,

8. Proper ratio of concrete mix should be confirmed,

9. Availability of slump testing equipment,

10. Availability of cube casting equipment.

After the above inspection is done and found satisfactory, concreting work should start. 

Concreting of RCC columns, pedestals and footings should start from the center of vertical bars and go towards the ends. After placement of sufficient quantity, concrete should be vibrated at regular intervals so that the concrete spreads evenly on all sides. Over vibration of concrete should be avoided. Over vibration of concrete leads to segregation of coarse aggregates which settles at the bottom making the mix weak.

Proper keys should be provided in the center of column reinforcement and walls. if the concreting has to be stopped for the day, all upper surfaces of column and walls should be made rough by wire brush after initial setting of concrete for joints with later pour of concrete.
This is required to provide a proper grip between concrete of stem part with footing and walls and foundations. Cement and sand slurry of 1:1 mix should be applied on the footing and foundations before column stem and wall concreting is started, to avoid separation of stem/ wall where a cold joint may be formed.

After the concreting of footing is complete, immediately in a day or two starters for column and wall should be casted with proper alignment and again the upper surface of starter should be made rough. This can be easily achieved simply by spreading and light pressing coarse aggregates particles when concrete is still green in such a way that part of coarse aggregate is outside and part goes inside.

This method of making top surface rough is to be adopted along with providing key at all places in columns, pedestals, vertical walls which are always concreted after concreting of footing and rafts concreting is over (approximately two or three days letter). These measures provide a proper grip between the surfaces. In addition to above dowels in between outer main bars of wall and column are inserted when concrete is wet to provide further grip between old and new concrete surfaces.

 These dowels are 600 to 800 mm cut pieces of reinforcement bars, which are inserted in green/wet concrete such a way that half length is projecting and half length is inside concrete.
Wish you all the best for excellent concreting. Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, June 4, 2017


Dear Readers,

Turnbuckle is a device that usually consists of a link with screw threads at both ends, which is turned to bring the ends closer together. It is also known as stretching screw or bottle screw, it is used in hoisting or rigging operations. This should be of weld less construction and fabricated from alloy steel.
A turnbuckle is a 3-piece metal coupling device, usually comprised of internal screw threads along-with a long sleeve at both ends. It normally consists of two threaded eye bolts, one screwed into each end of a small metal frame, one with a left-hand thread and the other with a right-hand thread. The tension can be adjusted by rotating the frame / central nut. So that they can be pulled together or pushed farther.
The buckle is rotated clockwise, the screws eject out of the body, thereby releasing tension. And when it is turned in anti-clockwise direction, the screws on the other hand are driven towards the center, thereby increasing tension. The threaded regions of the turnbuckle either feature a hook or screw-eye at the non-threaded end.
It is used to fasten wires, cables, ropes, or shafts, which are either attached to an anchor point or to other cables, including ropes and shafts. When they are supplied with hook end fittings, ensure that the hooks are fitted with safety catches.
If the turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, it is extremely important to lock the frame to the end fittings to prevent it from turning and loosening. Lock nuts or jam nuts should not be used and add greatly to the load in the screw thread. Use wire instead.
Turnbuckles should be inspected frequently for cracks in the end fittings, deformed or bent rods and bodies, cracks and bends around the internally threaded portion and signs of thread damage.

Monday, May 1, 2017


Dear Readers,
Wish You a Happy May Day-2017

Following three industries where normally unskilled manpower are being deployed
·         Construction Industries –Applicable act is BOCW Act, 1996
·         Manufacturing Industries – Applicable act is Factories Act
·         Mining Industries – Applicable act is Mines Act
Now, let us discuss about BOCW act. It is short form of Building and Other Construction Workers' Welfare Cess Act, 1996

Normally in construction Industries, we used to follow the Contract Labour Act, 1971, and we take Labour License before commencement of Construction Job. In that Act, normally the details are given about the Contract Workforce, Obtaining Labour License Procedure, Welfare Measures, and all about the contract Workmen. The Government felt that the act is not having the uniqueness.
Hence in 1996, Indian government introduced the Building & Other Construction Workers Act, (in Short, BOCW Act), BOCW Rules and BOCW Welfare Cess Act, In BOCW Act & Rules it has given the direction about the Welfare measures to Workmen, Safety Precautions and many Technical Aspects about the Tools, Tackles, Instruments, Machineries, Lifting Appliances, its maintenance, inspection, etc. Medical Facilities required to be given to the injured workmen, Periodical Medical Checkup for drivers, operators, food handlers, etc., Pre-employment Medical Checkup for every workmen.
In this Act, for implementation purpose the Government needs fund. So they implemented the BOCW Welfare Act, which made the provision to collect 1% minimum and Maximum of 2% of the Cost of Construction / Works carried out during the Financial Year to be paid as BOCWW Cess to the BOCWW Cess Board.
Some of the Key Points are below.
·         Cess came into force on 26th March, 1998

·         This act is applicable immediately on commencement of Job

·         The Principal Employer and the contractors, both are liable for this Cess

·         The responsibility of Principal Employer to make the payment of Cess.

·         The BOCW Cess is payable to the Government (BOCW Welfare Commissioner of State)

·         Cess rate not exceeding two percentage, but not less than one percentage of the cost of construction incurred by an employer.

·         Cess shall not include the Cost of land and any compensation paid or payable to a worker or his kin under the Workmen's Compensation Act. 1923.

·         BOCW act does not include any building or other construction work to which the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948), or the Mines Act, 1952 (35 of 1952), apply.

·         Cess is not refundable in any case. However, the amount of compensation paid to the workers during that year, can be deducted from the Cess payable.

·         Cess shall be paid by an employer,

o   If the project duration is less than a year, within thirty days of completion of the construction project or within thirty days of the date on which assessment of Cess payable is finalised, whichever is earlier, to the Cess collector.

o   If the duration of the project or construction work exceeds one year, Cess shall be paid within thirty days of completion of one year from the date of commencement of work and every year thereafter at the notified rates on the cost of construction incurred during the relevant period.

·         Once Factories Act is implemented there the BOCW act will get ceased.

·         Once the Factory fencing is made excluding the expansion project then Factories Act is not applicable and only BOCW will be applicable to that expansion project.

·         If Construction area falls within the factory premises then BOCW Act cannot be applicable and only Factories Act will be applicable.

·         For Registration under BOCW Act is exempted for those who got covered by Factories Act and Mines Act and the construction work carried out for self and the cost is within 10 Lakhs.

·         Generally ESI Coverage is not applicable for Construction Industries and not for BOCW Act. But if your construction Activities are being done in the premises of Factories or your principal employer is covered under ESI, then obviously you also required to make payment of ESI as 1.75% Employee Share and 4.75% Employer Share.
The above views are my personal views from the study which I have made on this subject. There is a need to take up the ambiguities in this entire enactment

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Sand Blasting


Dear Readers,
Sand blasting is one of the surface cleaning process for structural steel. Sandblasting is a general term used to describe the act of propelling very fine bits of material at high-velocity to clean a surface. Sand used to be the most commonly used material.

As per ISO and Swedish standard, Surface preparation by blast cleaning is designated by the letters "Sa". Swedish standards has been accepted worldwide. As per standards Sand blasting is classified under four category namely Sa1, Sa2, Sa 2 ½, & Sa3.

Brief descriptions are as follows. 
Sa1 = Light Blast Cleaning
Sa2 = Through Blast Cleaning
Sa 2 ½ = Very through blast cleaning
Sa3 = Blast cleaning to visually clean Steel

“Sa” means Swedish air blast similarly “St” means Swedish tool cleaning. Detailed description of each grade is as follows.

Blasting Grade Sa 1: It is a light blast cleaning. Loose mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed. When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter.

Blasting Grade Sa 2: It is a through blast cleaning. Almost all mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed.  When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any residual contamination shall be firmly adhering.

Blasting Grade Sa 2 ½: It is a very through blast cleaning. This grade is very often used in construction industry. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed to the extent that the only traces remaining are slight stains in the form of spots or stripes.

Blasting Grade Sa3: Blast cleaning to pure metal. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed completely and it shall have a uniform metallic colour.
1). Surface cleaning should be mention along with rust grade. For example B Sa2, here first letter "B" represents rust grade.

2). Prior to blast –cleaning, any heavy layers of rust shall be removed by chipping. Visible oil, grease and dirt shall also be removed.

3). Finally the surface is cleaned with a vacuum cleaner, clean dry compressed air, or a clean dry brush before painting.

For More Details about surface preparation of structural steel click Here
For More Details about grades of rust click Here

Thursday, March 2, 2017

Seventh Blogoversary

Dear Readers,

I am very glad to inform you that Engineer diary blog has been passed another year. yes, it is a Seventh blogoversary. I would like to take this opportunity to thank each and every one of you who has stayed with us along our incredible journey for the past Seven years.
It was my long dream that share the technical knowledge and data’s to others, especially for engineers, technicians and others who are being involved in construction industry. Accordingly, Seven years ago, I wrote my first blog post, having no idea where it would lead me or how it would change my life, but I was very sure that demand for technical data will be always exists and I believed that I can do better some extent. Hope new comers in construction industry benefited through this blog. Hope I am moving in right direction without change my core value (This blog is not for time pass)
Dear Readers,

Click here to get more
Seventh Blogoversary for Engineer Diary
Crane & Crane Man
Provided by MasterGreetings.com

I know that I am moving little bit slow regarding the quantity of posts (Total 144 posts blogged during these period and 20 posts during last year) This is due to more conscious about the technical data, we realize how important it has become to us as well as to you, and we promise we will keep it up with quality information.
I have received so many loving emails and comments through the years because of this blog, which makes my heart beyond happy. I have made so many amazing friends through the years because of this blog. I love that so much. I am so grateful to everyone who has supported this blog with love, behind the scene advices, wonderful comments and likes, introducing the blog to people, etc. I really do appreciate.

Once again, thanking you to each of you who have offered support here along the way.
-Crane  & Crane Man.

Sunday, February 5, 2017


Dear Readers,

ISMB - Indian Standard Medium Weight Beam. This weight chart is republished here. It has been a popular post of this blog. However it is necessary to update the table for more information like dimensions of Web and Flange including thickness apart from unit weight.

Beam cross section looks like a English letter I or H. It is a Hot rolled Steel, The horizontal element is called flanges, while the vertical element is called web and it is a Hot rolled steel

For More Details about classification of Hot rolled steel click Here
For More Details about the unit weight of all beam click All in One

Best Quote :- Do the difficult things while they are easy and do the great things while they are small. A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Have a Nice Day
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Abbreviations (19) Acre (2) ANSI (1) Anti friction bearing (2) Apothecaries Mass (1) Avoirdupois Mass (1) AWG (4) AWS (3) BCR 295 (2) Beam (19) Bearings (5) Blasting & Painting (5) Blogoversary (3) Bolt (4) CAR A/C (1) Cartoon (2) Cent (2) CHANNEL (7) Chequered Plate (1) Chinese (3) Civil (2) Classification (3) Cleaning (4) Cold Rolled Steel (2) Colour Code (1) Column Section (1) Computer (1) Concrete (1) Construction Industry (5) Conversion Table (2) Crane Rail (2) Density (1) Drill bit (1) Drill gauge (1) Drilling (1) Dry Ice (1) EHS (1) Ellipcon Steel (1) Elliptical Hollow Section (1) EN 10083-3 (1) EN 10219 (1) Engineer Day (6) Engineering Miracle (2) European Steel (3) Fibre Rope (3) Fire (1) FLAT (1) floating crane (1) Flood (1) Formula (1) GAUGE (9) General (24) Greetings (6) H-beam (4) Handrail (1) Heavy Weight Beam (1) Helmet (2) HEXAGOAN (2) Hollow Rectangle (3) Hollow Square (5) Hollow Steel (10) Hot rolled Steel (27) HSS (9) I-Beam (2) Information (5) Informations (4) Introduce (4) IPE (3) IS 1173 (5) IS 1786 (1) IS 3443 (2) IS 4923 (2) IS 808 (15) IS:1732 (1) ISA (2) ISCR (1) ISHB (3) ISJB (4) ISJC (2) ISLB (3) ISLC (2) ISMB (4) ISMC (2) ISMCP (1) ISNT (2) ISSC (2) ISWB (3) JIS G3466 (1) Joints (1) Junior Beam (2) Junior Channel (3) Labour Law (2) Land Measurement (2) Light Beam (1) Light Channel (3) LPG Cylinder (1) Mass (2) Measurement (3) Metals (4) Mile Stone (2) Music Wire (4) MWG (6) Numbers (3) OCTOGAN (1) Painting (4) Parallel Flange Channel (1) PFC (1) PIPE (1) Plastics (2) PPE (1) Precautions (2) Rain (1) Rebar (1) Reinforcement Rod (1) Reinforcemnt Steel (1) Reo (1) Rigging (8) River on River (1) Rope (6) ROUND (2) Safety (11) Scale (1) Self Explanatory (4) SEP (4) Short cut key (1) Sling (1) Slit Tee (1) Specific Gravity (3) SQUARE (1) SSPC (1) Steel (19) Steel Beam (7) Steel Section (6) Steel Section Type (5) Structural Steel (53) Surface Preparation (5) SWG (4) SWL (1) Technical (6) Tee Section (5) Thanks (7) Tools & Tackles (2) Torque (5) Troy Mass (1) TUBE (1) Turnbuckle (1) UB (2) UC (2) Unit of Mass (1) UNIT WEIGHT (47) Universal Beam (1) universal Column (2) Water (3) Weight (9) Welding (5) Wide Flange Beam (2) Wind (6) Wind Speed (4) Wire Rope (3) Wishes (14) WWD (1)


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