Welcome

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Unit Weight of Chinese I Beam

Dear Readers,
 
For Chinese Steel section Beams are mentioned as “I “or “H " followed by number. To find out the size of section is, shown number multiple by 10 is the size of member.

For Example I20 means I section 200 mm depth. Simultaneously the beam sizes are same but width or flange size is different then suffix a, b, c is shown.

For example I20a & I20b, both are 200 beam. However width of flange is 100 and 102 mm respectively, also thickness of web also changes. While designating the beam Depth and width only mentioned. I20a means Beam 200 X 100 and I20b means Beam 200 X 102. Unit Weight of I Beam section is below.

Generally Chinese Steel Grades are Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255 and Q275 is used for Structural works. steel grades by the yield point of the letter on behalf of (Q) and yield point value is mentioned and sub grade A, B, C & D are used for further classification. For Example Q235A means, it is a carbon steel and having maximum yield strength of 235 Mpa.
For More Details about Chinese Channel Click Here
For More Details about Chinese Steel Standards Click Here

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Concreting Precautions

Dear Readers,

No construction activities will be taken without concreting, Let us see the precaution works before concreting. Proper concreting of RCC Columns, pedestals and footings is needed to ensure desired strength and durability of these structural members. Improper method of concreting may lead to corrosion of steel reinforcement due to pores, cracks in concrete and concrete may not achieve its target strength on setting. This may also lead to failure of columns, pedestals or footings on during occupancy of the structure.

Things to keep in mind before starting concrete works at site are:

1. Formwork inspection for strength, leakage and surface finish.

2. Reinforcement inspection as per drawing, lap length, correct lapping guidelines as per code,

3. Inspection for concrete cover to reinforcement

4. Inspection for alignment of structural member as per drawing

5. Availability of sufficient construction material at site

6. Availability of concrete vibrators,

7. Proper safety PPEs and safety measures,

8. Proper ratio of concrete mix should be confirmed,

9. Availability of slump testing equipment,

10. Availability of cube casting equipment.

After the above inspection is done and found satisfactory, concreting work should start. 

Concreting of RCC columns, pedestals and footings should start from the center of vertical bars and go towards the ends. After placement of sufficient quantity, concrete should be vibrated at regular intervals so that the concrete spreads evenly on all sides. Over vibration of concrete should be avoided. Over vibration of concrete leads to segregation of coarse aggregates which settles at the bottom making the mix weak.

Proper keys should be provided in the center of column reinforcement and walls. if the concreting has to be stopped for the day, all upper surfaces of column and walls should be made rough by wire brush after initial setting of concrete for joints with later pour of concrete.
 
This is required to provide a proper grip between concrete of stem part with footing and walls and foundations. Cement and sand slurry of 1:1 mix should be applied on the footing and foundations before column stem and wall concreting is started, to avoid separation of stem/ wall where a cold joint may be formed.

After the concreting of footing is complete, immediately in a day or two starters for column and wall should be casted with proper alignment and again the upper surface of starter should be made rough. This can be easily achieved simply by spreading and light pressing coarse aggregates particles when concrete is still green in such a way that part of coarse aggregate is outside and part goes inside.

This method of making top surface rough is to be adopted along with providing key at all places in columns, pedestals, vertical walls which are always concreted after concreting of footing and rafts concreting is over (approximately two or three days letter). These measures provide a proper grip between the surfaces. In addition to above dowels in between outer main bars of wall and column are inserted when concrete is wet to provide further grip between old and new concrete surfaces.

 These dowels are 600 to 800 mm cut pieces of reinforcement bars, which are inserted in green/wet concrete such a way that half length is projecting and half length is inside concrete.
 
Wish you all the best for excellent concreting. Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Turnbuckle

Dear Readers,

Turnbuckle is a device that usually consists of a link with screw threads at both ends, which is turned to bring the ends closer together. It is also known as stretching screw or bottle screw, it is used in hoisting or rigging operations. This should be of weld less construction and fabricated from alloy steel.
 
A turnbuckle is a 3-piece metal coupling device, usually comprised of internal screw threads along-with a long sleeve at both ends. It normally consists of two threaded eye bolts, one screwed into each end of a small metal frame, one with a left-hand thread and the other with a right-hand thread. The tension can be adjusted by rotating the frame / central nut. So that they can be pulled together or pushed farther.
 
The buckle is rotated clockwise, the screws eject out of the body, thereby releasing tension. And when it is turned in anti-clockwise direction, the screws on the other hand are driven towards the center, thereby increasing tension. The threaded regions of the turnbuckle either feature a hook or screw-eye at the non-threaded end.
 
It is used to fasten wires, cables, ropes, or shafts, which are either attached to an anchor point or to other cables, including ropes and shafts. When they are supplied with hook end fittings, ensure that the hooks are fitted with safety catches.
 
If the turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, it is extremely important to lock the frame to the end fittings to prevent it from turning and loosening. Lock nuts or jam nuts should not be used and add greatly to the load in the screw thread. Use wire instead.
 
Turnbuckles should be inspected frequently for cracks in the end fittings, deformed or bent rods and bodies, cracks and bends around the internally threaded portion and signs of thread damage.
 

Monday, May 1, 2017

BOCW Cess

Dear Readers,
 
Wish You a Happy May Day-2017

Following three industries where normally unskilled manpower are being deployed
·         Construction Industries –Applicable act is BOCW Act, 1996
·         Manufacturing Industries – Applicable act is Factories Act
·         Mining Industries – Applicable act is Mines Act
Now, let us discuss about BOCW act. It is short form of Building and Other Construction Workers' Welfare Cess Act, 1996

Normally in construction Industries, we used to follow the Contract Labour Act, 1971, and we take Labour License before commencement of Construction Job. In that Act, normally the details are given about the Contract Workforce, Obtaining Labour License Procedure, Welfare Measures, and all about the contract Workmen. The Government felt that the act is not having the uniqueness.
 
Hence in 1996, Indian government introduced the Building & Other Construction Workers Act, (in Short, BOCW Act), BOCW Rules and BOCW Welfare Cess Act, In BOCW Act & Rules it has given the direction about the Welfare measures to Workmen, Safety Precautions and many Technical Aspects about the Tools, Tackles, Instruments, Machineries, Lifting Appliances, its maintenance, inspection, etc. Medical Facilities required to be given to the injured workmen, Periodical Medical Checkup for drivers, operators, food handlers, etc., Pre-employment Medical Checkup for every workmen.
In this Act, for implementation purpose the Government needs fund. So they implemented the BOCW Welfare Act, which made the provision to collect 1% minimum and Maximum of 2% of the Cost of Construction / Works carried out during the Financial Year to be paid as BOCWW Cess to the BOCWW Cess Board.
Some of the Key Points are below.
·         Cess came into force on 26th March, 1998

·         This act is applicable immediately on commencement of Job

·         The Principal Employer and the contractors, both are liable for this Cess

·         The responsibility of Principal Employer to make the payment of Cess.

·         The BOCW Cess is payable to the Government (BOCW Welfare Commissioner of State)

·         Cess rate not exceeding two percentage, but not less than one percentage of the cost of construction incurred by an employer.

·         Cess shall not include the Cost of land and any compensation paid or payable to a worker or his kin under the Workmen's Compensation Act. 1923.

·         BOCW act does not include any building or other construction work to which the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948), or the Mines Act, 1952 (35 of 1952), apply.

·         Cess is not refundable in any case. However, the amount of compensation paid to the workers during that year, can be deducted from the Cess payable.

·         Cess shall be paid by an employer,

o   If the project duration is less than a year, within thirty days of completion of the construction project or within thirty days of the date on which assessment of Cess payable is finalised, whichever is earlier, to the Cess collector.

o   If the duration of the project or construction work exceeds one year, Cess shall be paid within thirty days of completion of one year from the date of commencement of work and every year thereafter at the notified rates on the cost of construction incurred during the relevant period.

·         Once Factories Act is implemented there the BOCW act will get ceased.

·         Once the Factory fencing is made excluding the expansion project then Factories Act is not applicable and only BOCW will be applicable to that expansion project.

·         If Construction area falls within the factory premises then BOCW Act cannot be applicable and only Factories Act will be applicable.

·         For Registration under BOCW Act is exempted for those who got covered by Factories Act and Mines Act and the construction work carried out for self and the cost is within 10 Lakhs.

·         Generally ESI Coverage is not applicable for Construction Industries and not for BOCW Act. But if your construction Activities are being done in the premises of Factories or your principal employer is covered under ESI, then obviously you also required to make payment of ESI as 1.75% Employee Share and 4.75% Employer Share.
The above views are my personal views from the study which I have made on this subject. There is a need to take up the ambiguities in this entire enactment

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Sand Blasting

 

Dear Readers,
 
Sand blasting is one of the surface cleaning process for structural steel. Sandblasting is a general term used to describe the act of propelling very fine bits of material at high-velocity to clean a surface. Sand used to be the most commonly used material.


As per ISO and Swedish standard, Surface preparation by blast cleaning is designated by the letters "Sa". Swedish standards has been accepted worldwide. As per standards Sand blasting is classified under four category namely Sa1, Sa2, Sa 2 ½, & Sa3.


Brief descriptions are as follows. 
Sa1 = Light Blast Cleaning
Sa2 = Through Blast Cleaning
Sa 2 ½ = Very through blast cleaning
Sa3 = Blast cleaning to visually clean Steel

“Sa” means Swedish air blast similarly “St” means Swedish tool cleaning. Detailed description of each grade is as follows.

Blasting Grade Sa 1: It is a light blast cleaning. Loose mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed. When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter.

Blasting Grade Sa 2: It is a through blast cleaning. Almost all mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed.  When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any residual contamination shall be firmly adhering.

Blasting Grade Sa 2 ½: It is a very through blast cleaning. This grade is very often used in construction industry. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed to the extent that the only traces remaining are slight stains in the form of spots or stripes.

Blasting Grade Sa3: Blast cleaning to pure metal. Mill scale, rust and foreign matter must be removed completely and it shall have a uniform metallic colour.
Notes.
1). Surface cleaning should be mention along with rust grade. For example B Sa2, here first letter "B" represents rust grade.

2). Prior to blast –cleaning, any heavy layers of rust shall be removed by chipping. Visible oil, grease and dirt shall also be removed.

3). Finally the surface is cleaned with a vacuum cleaner, clean dry compressed air, or a clean dry brush before painting.

For More Details about surface preparation of structural steel click Here
For More Details about grades of rust click Here
 

Thursday, March 2, 2017

Seventh Blogoversary

Dear Readers,

I am very glad to inform you that Engineer diary blog has been passed another year. yes, it is a Seventh blogoversary. I would like to take this opportunity to thank each and every one of you who has stayed with us along our incredible journey for the past Seven years.
 
It was my long dream that share the technical knowledge and data’s to others, especially for engineers, technicians and others who are being involved in construction industry. Accordingly, Seven years ago, I wrote my first blog post, having no idea where it would lead me or how it would change my life, but I was very sure that demand for technical data will be always exists and I believed that I can do better some extent. Hope new comers in construction industry benefited through this blog. Hope I am moving in right direction without change my core value (This blog is not for time pass)
 
Dear Readers,

Click here to get more
Seventh Blogoversary for Engineer Diary
Crane & Crane Man
Provided by MasterGreetings.com

 
I know that I am moving little bit slow regarding the quantity of posts (Total 144 posts blogged during these period and 20 posts during last year) This is due to more conscious about the technical data, we realize how important it has become to us as well as to you, and we promise we will keep it up with quality information.
 
I have received so many loving emails and comments through the years because of this blog, which makes my heart beyond happy. I have made so many amazing friends through the years because of this blog. I love that so much. I am so grateful to everyone who has supported this blog with love, behind the scene advices, wonderful comments and likes, introducing the blog to people, etc. I really do appreciate.
 

Once again, thanking you to each of you who have offered support here along the way.
 
-Crane  & Crane Man.

Sunday, February 5, 2017

ISMB UNIT WEIGHT

Dear Readers,

ISMB - Indian Standard Medium Weight Beam. This weight chart is republished here. It has been a popular post of this blog. However it is necessary to update the table for more information like dimensions of Web and Flange including thickness apart from unit weight.
 

Beam cross section looks like a English letter I or H. It is a Hot rolled Steel, The horizontal element is called flanges, while the vertical element is called web and it is a Hot rolled steel

For More Details about classification of Hot rolled steel click Here
For More Details about the unit weight of all beam click All in One
 

Best Quote :- Do the difficult things while they are easy and do the great things while they are small. A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Have a Nice Day

Sunday, January 15, 2017

International Steel Standards

Dear Readers,

While preparing blog articles, self always try to co-ordinate the steel standards between the other steel standards. Unfortunately, there is no common global steel standard or classification system. Rather, there are a number of classification and designation systems accepted and used worldwide, which are developed and standardized either nationally and internationally.
Steel standards are systems for classifying, evaluating, and specifying the chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of different types of steels and ferrous alloys that are used in the production of components, machinery, and constructions.
Steels can be classified by a large variety of criteria, such as:
1). Composition, for example carbon, low-alloy, or stainless steel.
2). Method of manufacturing, such as open hearth, basic oxygen process, or electric furnace methods.
3). Finishing method, such as hot rolling, cold rolling, and various surface finishing and platting techniques.
4). Product form, for example bar, wire, plate, sheet, strip, tubing or structural shape.
5). DE oxidation practice, such as killed, semi-killed, capped or rimmed steel.
6). Microstructure, such as ferritic, pearlite and martensitic.
7). Heat treatment, such as annealing, quenching and tempering.
Some of the more frequently used steel standard and classification systems include:
AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) steel standards, which are traditionally used in the US and abroad. While this standard is no longer maintained and has increasingly been replaced by SAE, ASTM and other U.S. standards, it is still widespread.
EN (Euro norm), which is a harmonized system of metal and steel standards of European countries. Although it is accepted and effectively used in all European countries, “obsolete” national systems, such as German-DIN, British-BS, French-AFNOR and Italian-UNI are commonly used and often found in many documents and specifications.
Japanese JIS steel standards, which are widely used in Asia and Pacific regions. JIS steel specifications have also often been used as a base for other national systems, such as Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese standards.
Steel standards for BRIC Countries Brazilian-NBR, Russian-GOST, Indian-IS, and Chinese-GB and YB are followed.
For Example, Different standards used for General structural steel in construction works are as follows.
Indian Standard = IS: 2062
Chinese Standard = GB/T 700-2006
Japanese Standard = JIS G3101-2004
European Standard = EN 10025-2004
American Standard = ASTM A36-05.
Similarly, Different steel standards are used for Cold forming steel, high strength low alloy structural steel, Steel for boiler and other pressure vessels and Steel for ship building.
Note : In addition to the many standards described above, many steel manufacturers and suppliers have developed their own proprietary, commercial names for designating steels. Some of these designations have, after years and decades of use, become widely used within the industrial community and are often referred to as “common“ names or “trade” names, without actually referring to the particular supplier. In most cases, these “common” names are not standardized and properties may vary substantially; their application in official technical documents should therefore be avoided.

Sunday, January 1, 2017

New Year Wishes - 2017

Dear Readers,

A new year is like a blank book, and the pen is in your hands. It is your chance to write a beautiful story for yourself. Happy New Year .
Regards,
Crane & Crane Man (Engineer Diary)
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Labels

Abbreviations (16) Acre (2) ANSI (1) Anti friction bearing (2) Apothecaries Mass (1) Avoirdupois Mass (1) AWG (4) AWS (1) BCR 295 (2) Beam (19) Bearings (5) Blasting & Painting (3) Blogoversary (2) Bolt (4) CAR A/C (1) Cartoon (2) Cent (2) CHANNEL (7) Chequered Plate (1) Chinese (3) Civil (2) Classification (1) Cleaning (2) Cold Rolled Steel (2) Column Section (1) Computer (1) Concrete (1) Construction Industry (4) Conversion Table (2) Crane Rail (2) Density (1) Drill bit (1) Drill gauge (1) Drilling (1) EHS (1) Ellipcon Steel (1) Elliptical Hollow Section (1) EN 10083-3 (1) EN 10219 (1) Engineer Day (5) Engineering Miracle (2) European Steel (3) Fibre Rope (3) Fire (1) FLAT (1) floating crane (1) Flood (1) GAUGE (9) General (20) Greetings (4) H-beam (4) Handrail (1) Heavy Weight Beam (1) Helmet (1) HEXAGOAN (1) Hollow Rectangle (3) Hollow Square (5) Hollow Steel (10) Hot rolled Steel (26) HSS (9) I-Beam (2) Information (5) Informations (4) Introduce (4) IPE (3) IS 1173 (5) IS 1786 (1) IS 3443 (2) IS 4923 (2) IS 808 (15) ISA (2) ISCR (1) ISHB (3) ISJB (4) ISJC (2) ISLB (3) ISLC (2) ISMB (4) ISMC (2) ISMCP (1) ISNT (2) ISSC (2) ISWB (3) JIS G3466 (1) Junior Beam (2) Junior Channel (3) Labour Law (2) Land Measurement (2) Light Beam (1) Light Channel (3) LPG Cylinder (1) Mass (2) Measurement (3) Metals (4) Mile Stone (2) Music Wire (4) MWG (6) Numbers (3) OCTOGAN (1) Painting (3) Parallel Flange Channel (1) PFC (1) PIPE (1) Plastics (2) PPE (1) Precautions (2) Rain (1) Rebar (1) Reinforcement Rod (1) Reinforcemnt Steel (1) Reo (1) Rigging (7) River on River (1) Rope (6) ROUND (1) Safety (9) Scale (1) Self Explanatory (4) SEP (4) Short cut key (1) Sling (1) Slit Tee (1) Specific Gravity (3) SQUARE (1) Steel (18) Steel Beam (7) Steel Section (6) Steel Section Type (5) Structural Steel (52) Surface Preparation (3) SWG (4) SWL (1) Technical (5) Tee Section (5) Thanks (6) Tools & Tackles (2) Torque (5) Troy Mass (1) TUBE (1) Turnbuckle (1) UB (2) UC (2) Unit of Mass (1) UNIT WEIGHT (45) Universal Beam (1) universal Column (2) Water (2) Weight (8) Welding (3) Wide Flange Beam (2) Wind (6) Wind Speed (4) Wire Rope (2) Wishes (11) WWD (1)

Note

1) I have extracted the information from reference sources which may not be in accordance with the latest Standards - as identified.

2) The data’s are based on a review of various reference sources. For important work please check against quality information sources.

3) The Articles are no way connected to company of author belongs.

4) This Blog will not be liable for any, direct or indirect, consequential or incidental damages or loss arising out of the use of this information.

5) If you have any suggestions or feedback on how this blog can improve it for you, please feel free to e-mail me (engineerdiary@gmail.com) Self will try my best to keep up with it!

6) Paypal account of this site is engineerdiary@gmail.com

7) If your brand/company is keen to work with Engineer Diary for advertisement and sponsorship, you can drop us an email at engineerdiary@gmail.com

8) For More Disclaimer please refer Disclaimer Page