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Sunday, October 24, 2010

UNIVERSAL BEAM PROPERTIES

In continuation with my Previous post, Self would like to add the physical properties of Universal beams. It will be usefull for designers. It covers root radius, Depth of section and plastic modulus etc

Click on picture to enlarge

Thursday, September 30, 2010

UNIVERSAL BEAM

 
We may well aware about our Indian Standard Beams. But it is having some limitation about the sizes. Maximum size available is ISMB-600. However Universal Beams are used in construction industry world wide.

Various size of beams are available from UB 127 X 76 X 13 to UB 914 X 419 X 388.



Universal Beam Designates like UB-Size1 X Size2 X Size3

Here UB represnts Universal Beam,
Size 1 represents Height of the section
Size 2 represents Width of the section
Size 3 represents Unit weight per Meter

The table shows Details of  universal beams. Details are based BS 4: Part1: 2005





















































































Saturday, September 25, 2010

UNIT WEIGHT OF ROUND, SQUARE, HEXOGAN, OCTOGAN









Sunday, September 19, 2010

UNIT WEIGHT OF ISMC

Some times during our Execution,  we suppose encounter the odd size sections like ISMC 250 X 82. We will execute the job but will be claimed ISMC 250 X 80 weight. Self had a same experience in my early days. To avoid this by others self listed the section weight of Channels below

                                                       1) ISMC 75 X 40 -7.14
2) ISMC 100 X 50-9.56
3) ISMC 125 X 65-13.10
4) ISMC 125 X 66-13.70
5) ISMC 150 X 75-16.80
6) ISMC 150 X 76-17.70
7) ISMC 175 X 75-19.60
8) ISMC 175 X 77-21.70
9) ISMC 200 X 75-22.30

10) ISMC 200 X 76-24.30
11) ISMC 225 X 80-26.10
12) ISMC 225 X 83-30.70
13) ISMC 250 X 80-30.60
14) ISMC 250 X 82-34.60
15) ISMC 250 X 84-38.10
16) ISMC 300 X 90-36.30
17) ISMC 300 X 92-41.50
18) ISMC 300 X 94-46.20
19) ISMC 350 X100-42.70
20) ISMC 400 X 100-50.10

Please click on picture to enlarge

Monday, June 7, 2010

CAR A/C

Do You Know? Do not turn on A/C immediately as soon as you enter Your .... CAR!
Please open the windows after you enter your car and do not turn ON the air-conditioning immediately. According to a research done, the car dashboard, sofa, air freshener emits Benzene, a Cancer causing toxin (carcinogen- take note of the heated plastic smell in your car). In addition to causing cancer, it poisons your bones, causes anemia, and reduces white blood cells. Prolonged exposure will cause Leukemia, increasing the risk of cancer may also cause miscarriage.

Acceptable Benzene level indoors is 50 mg per sq. ft. A car parked indoors with the windows closed will contain 400-800 mg of Benzene. If parked outdoors under the sun at a temperature above 60 degrees F, the Benzene level goes up to 2000-4000 mg, 40 times the acceptable level... & the people inside the car will inevitably inhale an excess amount of the toxins.
It is recommended that you open the windows and door to give time for the interior to air out before you enter. Benzene is a toxin that affects your kidney and liver, and is very difficult for your body to expel this toxic stuff.
"When someone shares something of value with you and you benefit from it, you have a moral obligation to share it with others"

Saturday, May 8, 2010

Steel Type and Uses

There are five major classifications of steels: carbon steel, alloy steel, high-strength low-alloy steel, stainless steel and tool steel.

Carbon steels are the most common, containing various amounts of carbon, produce everything from machines to bedsprings to bobby pins.

Alloy steels have definite amounts of vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, silicon and cooper. Alloy steels produce gears, carving knives and even roller skates.

Stainless steels have chromium, nickel amongst other alloy elements which sustains their color and reaction to rust. Stainless steel products include pipes, space capsules, surgical equipment to kitchen equipment.

Last but not least, tool steels have tungsten, molybdenum amongst other alloy elements. These elements create the strength and ability of the tool steel products, which include parts for manufacturing operations as well as machinery.

The varying amounts of carbon, amongst other elements in each of the types of steel create a variety in densities or specific gravities. (Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of a material's density to that of water.)

Stainless steels are the most dense, coming in at 8000 kg/m3. Though the densities vary, the density of steel is about 7700 kg/m3. The density of steel are measured in g/cm3, kg/m3, kg/L and lb/f3, with kg/m3 being the more commonly used measurement.
 
Below list shows Density (g/cm3) with in bracket
1.Low Alloy & Alloy Steels (7.60)
2.Stainless Steels MIM-316L (7.80)
3.Stainless Steels 304 L (7.75)
4.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-430L (7.50)
5.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-Fe-50%Ni (7.70)
6.Controlled Expansion Alloy Kovar (F-15 Alloy) (8.00)

Henry Bessemer created the Bessemer process in 1856 to manufacture steel cheaply.

Friday, April 30, 2010

Density of Steel

Steel is like air, it's everywhere: from bridges to fridges and from washing machines to canteens. Steel is mostly composed of iron and carbon. It contains small amounts of manganese and even smaller amounts of silicon, phosphorous, oxygen, sulfur, and other elements.

Density is one of the numerous properties of steel. It is calculated by dividing the mass by the volume. Steel comes in many different forms. Their densities differ by type see below.Density are mentioned with in bracket

1.Steel, tool (7.715)
2.Wrought Iron (7.75)
3.Carbon Tool Steel (7.82)
4.Steel, cold-drawn (7.83)
5.Carbon Steel (7.84)
6.Steel, C1020, HR (7.85)
7.Pure Iron (7.86)
8.Soft Steel (0.06% C) (7.87)
9.Stainless Steel, 304 (8.03)
10.Stainless 18Cr-8Ni (8.03)

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

UNIT WEIGHT OF ISMB

Unit Weight of ISMB as Follows. Weights are Kg per Meter

1.ISMB 100X50 - 8.9
2.ISMB 100X70 - 11.50
3.ISMB 125X70 - 13.30
4.ISMB 150X80 - 14.90
5.ISMB 175X85 - 19.30
6.ISMB 200X100 - 25.40
7.ISMB 225X110 - 31.20
8.ISMB 250X125 - 37.30

9.ISMB 300X140 - 46.00
10.ISMB 350X140 - 52.40
11.ISMB 400X140 - 61.60
12.ISMB 450X150 - 72.40
13.ISMB 500X180 - 86.90
14.ISMB 550X190 - 104.00
15.ISMB 600X210 - 123.00

For Table, please click on the picture below

Friday, April 23, 2010

Unit Weight of Building Materials

During Construction we may need weights of building material like brick, different type of concretes and Charcol etc.

This is rare collection and will be useful to construction engineers

Friday, April 16, 2010

Short Cut Key



When a situation may arise your mouse is no longer functioning, or you're working with a computer with no mouse support. Shortcut keys help provide an easier and usually quicker method of navigating and using computer and it will increase your productivity. Some of the commonly used keys you will need to use to navigate MS Word  and MS Excel are here.

Click on picture to enlarge

Saturday, April 10, 2010

Mass Chart

This is continuation with my previous post Specific Gravity

The mass of over 30 different metals and alloys are listed below. While the data is useful for design, individual samples will differ. Impurities will often have an influence.

Monday, April 5, 2010

Specific Gravity

As you well aware that all materials having individual properties and weights based on the density. How we can compare the different materials in a same platform.

Pure water was chosen as the 'base line' for specific gravity and given the value of 1. The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or lighter density.

For example, Copper has a specific gravity (sg) of 8.93 (8930 kg/cu.m)

One handy metric link between units to remember is that 1 Litre [1000cc] of pure water weighs 1 kilogram.Equally, 1 milliliter of pure water has a mass of 1 gram or 1mL = 1g.

As specific gravity is just a comparison, it can be applied across any units.
Specific gravity is the same number as density but without any units (adimensional).

Friday, April 2, 2010

Weight Calculation for Other Metals

In continuation with my previous post let us see how to calculate the weights othar than steel.

Basic formula for any material calculation is

Area in Square Meter multiple by Thickness and Multiple by Specific gravity of particular material

Weight = Length X Width X Thickness X Specific Gravity of material

UOM  for Length & Width is Meter, For Thickness is Milli Meter

What is mean by Specific Gravity will see in my next post

Monday, March 29, 2010

Structural Steel Weight Calculation

Dears,

Do you know how to calculate structural steel weights?It is very easy

If it is a Rolled section like Beam, Channel, Rod, Square, Angles & Flats
WEIGHT = LENGTH X UNIT WEIGHT

If it is a Plate OR Sheet
WEIGHT = LENGTH X WIDTH X THICKNESS X 7.85

UOM (Unit Of Measurement) for Length and width are Meter , For thickness it is in MM (Milli Meter)

7.85 is Specific Gravity of Steel

Eaxmple-1
If ISMB-600 length is 12550mm
Weight = 12550/1000 * 123.1 (Unit weigt of ISMB-600 per Meter is 123.00Kg/Meter)
Weight=1543.65Kg

Example-2
If Plate 16mm thickness, 1250mm width, 12500mm length
Weight= 1250/1000*12500/1000*16*7.85
Weight=1962.5 Kg

The same formuls can be applied for other materials also, Specific gravity should be used accordingly.

Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Water Properties


This is in continuation with my previous post on World Water Day

Drinking water standards

For Physical and chemical properties of  drinking water and acceptable limit please refer below tables


Table-1

Click on Picture to enlarge
Table-2

Monday, March 22, 2010

World Water Day


World Water Day, celebrated annually on March 22, was established by the United Nations in 1992.






An international day to celebrate freshwater was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day.



UN-Water is dedicating World Water Day 2010 to the theme of water quality “Clean water for a Healthy World “



Each year, World Water Day highlights a specific aspect of freshwater. Please note that a brief overview of the different themes that have been the focus of World Water Day celebrations.
2009: Transboundary Waters (Shared Water - Shared Opportunities)
2008: Sanitation (coincided with the International Year of Sanitation)
2007: Coping with Water Scarcity
2006: Water and Culture
2005: Water for Life
2004: Water and Disasters
2003: Water for Future
2002: Water for Development
2001: Water for Health
2000: Water for the Twenty-first Century
1999: Everyone Lives Downstream
1998: Ground Water – The invisible Resource
1997: The World’s Water, Is There Enough
1996: Water for Thirsty Cities
1995: Women & Water
1994: Caring for our Water Resources is Everyone’s Business

Worldwide water quality is declining mainly due to human activities. Increasing population growth, rapid urbanization, discharge of new pathogens and new chemicals from industries and invasive species are key factors that contribute to the deterioration of water quality.

Sufficient quality of water is critical to ensure a healthy environment and human health. The basic requirement per person per day is 20 to 40 liters of water free from harmful contaminants and pathogens for the purposes of drinking and sanitation, rising to 50 liters when bathing and kitchen needs are considered.

Source. www.unwater.org

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Steel Section Detail

During the discussions about my previous post STEEL SECTION one of my friend asked which one is web and Flange. To clarify the same please see the picture below


h = Depth of Section (Web)
b = Width of Section (Flange)
s = Thickness of Web
t = Thickness of Flange
d = Depth between Fillets
r = Root Radius

Sunday, March 7, 2010

STEEL SECTIONS

This article is for beginners of this construction industry. Being a Construction Engineer / Structural Engineer we have to work with different type of steel section. Different type of steel sections are listed below and also mentioned how it designated along with examples.


BEAM SECTIONS








1. ISJB - Indian Standard Junior Beams
2. ISLB - Indian Standard Light Weight Beams
3. ISMB - Indian Standard Medium Weight Beams
4. ISWB - Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams
5. ISHB - Indian Standard Heavy Weight Beams
Beams will be designated by Type - Web size X Flange size (Eg. ISMB 600X210)

PARALLEL FLANGE BEAMS







1. NPB - Indian Standard Narrow Parallel Flange Beams.
2. WPB - Indian Standard Wide Parallel Flange Beams
3. UB - Universal Beams4. UC - Universal Columns
Parallel Flange Beams will be designated by Type - Web size X Flange size X Unit Weight (Eg. UB 610X229X125)

ANGLES





1. ISA Indian Standard Equal Angle
2. ISUA Indian Standard Un Equal Angle
Angles will be designated by Type – Face1 size X Face2 size X Thickness (Eg. ISA 100X100X6)
CHANNELS








1. ISJC Indian Standard Junior Channel
2. ISLC Indian Standard Light Weight Channel
3. ISMC Indian Standard Medium Weight Channel
Channels will be designated by Type –Web size X Flange size (Eg. ISMC 100X50)
RAILS











1. ISCR Indian Standard Crane Rail
2. ISHR Indian Standard Heavy Rail
Rails will be designated by Type –Head size (Eg. ISCR 100)
PLATES









Plates will be designated by Thickness (Eg. Plate 10)

FLATS










Flats will be designated by Width X Thickness (Eg. Flat 100X6)
ROUND BAR








ISRO Indian Standard Round
Round Bar will be designated by Diameter (Eg. ISRO 50)
HEXAGON BAR








Hex.Bar will be designated by one side size (Eg. Hex. Bar 50)
SQUARE BAR









Square Bar will be designated by one side size (Eg. Sq. Bar 100)
SQUARE HOLLOW BAR









Square Hollow bar will be designated by Sq.Bar– Face1 size X Face size2 X Thickness (Eg. Sq.Bar 50X50X2)
RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTION








Rectangular Hollow bar will be designated by Rect. Bar– Face1 size X Face size2 X Thickness (Eg.Rect. Sq.Bar 100X50X2)

Hope this information may useful to you. More details like unit weight and other properties will follow my next articles.
Wish you all the best.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

LPG Gas Cylinder's Expirey Date

WISH YOU A HAPPY NATIONAL SAFETY DAY (4th MARCH 2010)


Have U ever heard about LPG gas cylinder's expiry date....!!

Expired Cylinders are not safe for use and may cause accidents. In this regard please be cautious at the time of accepting any LPG cylinder from the Agency.

Here is how we can check the expiry of LPG cylinders:

On one of three side stems of the cylinder, the expiry date is coded alpha numerically as follows A or B or C or D and some two digit number following this e.g. D06.

The alphabets stand for quarters -

1. A for March (First Qtr),

2. B for June (Second Qtr),

3. C for Sept (Third Qtr),

4. D for December (Fourth Qtr).

The digits stand for the year till it is valid.

For Example Please see the Image below

Expired Cylinder Image











Hence D06 would mean Fourth quarter of 2006. Please Return Back the Cylinder that you get with an Expired Date, they are prone to Leak and other Hazardous accidents .......


Valid Cylinder Image












The second example with D13 allows the cylinder to be in use until December2013.

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

Introduction

I am very happy today.

Self opened a Blog to discuss about Construction Works & Structural Engineering. Basic concept to open this Blog is to share the Engineering Information’s and enhance the computer knowledge to others.

When I recall about my initial periods during construction site self struggled to get the information from seniors. Some times they will guide us wrongly and purposefully (Afterwards I Understood that those mistakes we should not repeat in future). To avoid such a situation self started collecting the information as much as possible and sharing the information with my subordinates and new comers of this industry.

From this blog self would like to share the Technical data's. I Hope that all of you will get the benefit.

Bye, Have a Nice Day.

Thank You

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