In continuation with my Previous post, Self would like to add the physical properties of Universal beams. It will be usefull for designers. It covers root radius, Depth of section and plastic modulus etc
We may well aware about our Indian Standard Beams. But it is having some limitation about the sizes. Maximum size available is ISMB-600. However Universal Beams are used in construction industry world wide.
Various size of beams are available from UB 127 X 76 X 13 to UB 914 X 419 X 388.
Universal Beam Designates like UB-Size1 X Size2 X Size3
Here UB represnts Universal Beam,
Size 1 represents Height of the section
Size 2 represents Width of the section
Size 3 represents Unit weight per Meter
The table shows Details of universal beams. Details are based BS 4: Part1: 2005
Some times during our Execution, we suppose encounter the odd size sections like ISMC 250 X 82. We will execute the job but will be claimed ISMC 250 X 80 weight. Self had a same experience in my early days. To avoid this by others self listed the section weight of Channels below
1) ISMC 75 X 40 -7.14
2) ISMC 100 X 50-9.56
3) ISMC 125 X 65-13.10 4) ISMC 125 X 66-13.70
5) ISMC 150 X 75-16.80 6) ISMC 150 X 76-17.70
7) ISMC 175 X 75-19.60 8) ISMC 175 X 77-21.70
9) ISMC 200 X 75-22.30
10) ISMC 200 X 76-24.30
11) ISMC 225 X 80-26.10
12) ISMC 225 X 83-30.70
13) ISMC 250 X 80-30.60
14) ISMC 250 X 82-34.60
15) ISMC 250 X 84-38.10
16) ISMC 300 X 90-36.30 17) ISMC 300 X 92-41.50 18) ISMC 300 X 94-46.20
19) ISMC 350 X100-42.70
20) ISMC 400 X 100-50.10
Do You Know? Do not turn on A/C immediately as soon as you enter Your .... CAR!
Please open the windows after you enter your car and do not turn ON the air-conditioning immediately. According to a research done, the car dashboard, sofa, air freshener emits Benzene, a Cancer causing toxin (carcinogen- take note of the heated plastic smell in your car). In addition to causing cancer, it poisons your bones, causes anemia, and reduces white blood cells. Prolonged exposure will cause Leukemia, increasing the risk of cancer may also cause miscarriage.
Acceptable Benzene level indoors is 50 mg per sq. ft. A car parked indoors with the windows closed will contain 400-800 mg of Benzene. If parked outdoors under the sun at a temperature above 60 degrees F, the Benzene level goes up to 2000-4000 mg, 40 times the acceptable level... & the people inside the car will inevitably inhale an excess amount of the toxins.
It is recommended that you open the windows and door to give time for the interior to air out before you enter. Benzene is a toxin that affects your kidney and liver, and is very difficult for your body to expel this toxic stuff.
"When someone shares something of value with you and you benefit from it, you have a moral obligation to share it with others"
There are five major classifications of steels: carbon steel, alloy steel, high-strength low-alloy steel, stainless steel and tool steel.
Carbon steels are the most common, containing various amounts of carbon, produce everything from machines to bedsprings to bobby pins.
Alloy steels have definite amounts of vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, silicon and cooper. Alloy steels produce gears, carving knives and even roller skates.
Stainless steels have chromium, nickel amongst other alloy elements which sustains their color and reaction to rust. Stainless steel products include pipes, space capsules, surgical equipment to kitchen equipment.
Last but not least, tool steels have tungsten, molybdenum amongst other alloy elements. These elements create the strength and ability of the tool steel products, which include parts for manufacturing operations as well as machinery.
The varying amounts of carbon, amongst other elements in each of the types of steel create a variety in densities or specific gravities. (Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of a material's density to that of water.)
Stainless steels are the most dense, coming in at 8000 kg/m3. Though the densities vary, the density of steel is about 7700 kg/m3. The density of steel are measured in g/cm3, kg/m3, kg/L and lb/f3, with kg/m3 being the more commonly used measurement.
Below list shows Density (g/cm3) with in bracket
1.Low Alloy & Alloy Steels (7.60)
2.Stainless Steels MIM-316L (7.80)
3.Stainless Steels 304 L (7.75)
4.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-430L (7.50)
5.Soft Magnetic Alloys MIM-Fe-50%Ni (7.70)
6.Controlled Expansion Alloy Kovar (F-15 Alloy) (8.00)
Henry Bessemer created the Bessemer process in 1856 to manufacture steel cheaply.
Steel is like air, it's everywhere: from bridges to fridges and from washing machines to canteens. Steel is mostly composed of iron and carbon. It contains small amounts of manganese and even smaller amounts of silicon, phosphorous, oxygen, sulfur, and other elements.
Density is one of the numerous properties of steel. It is calculated by dividing the mass by the volume. Steel comes in many different forms. Their densities differ by type see below.Density are mentioned with in bracket
When a situation may arise your mouse is no longer functioning, or you're working with a computer with no mouse support. Shortcut keys help provide an easier and usually quicker method of navigating and using computer and it will increase your productivity. Some of the commonly used keys you will need to use to navigate MS Word and MS Excel are here.
World Water Day, celebrated annually on March 22, was established by the United Nations in 1992.
An international day to celebrate freshwater was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day.
UN-Water is dedicating World Water Day 2010 to the theme of water quality “Clean water for a Healthy World “
Each year, World Water Day highlights a specific aspect of freshwater. Please note that a brief overview of the different themes that have been the focus of World Water Day celebrations.
2009: Transboundary Waters (Shared Water - Shared Opportunities)
2008: Sanitation (coincided with the International Year of Sanitation)
2007: Coping with Water Scarcity
2006: Water and Culture
2005: Water for Life
2004: Water and Disasters
2003: Water for Future
2002: Water for Development
2001: Water for Health
2000: Water for the Twenty-first Century
1999: Everyone Lives Downstream
1998: Ground Water – The invisible Resource
1997: The World’s Water, Is There Enough
1996: Water for Thirsty Cities
1995: Women & Water
1994: Caring for our Water Resources is Everyone’s Business
Worldwide water quality is declining mainly due to human activities. Increasing population growth, rapid urbanization, discharge of new pathogens and new chemicals from industries and invasive species are key factors that contribute to the deterioration of water quality.
Sufficient quality of water is critical to ensure a healthy environment and human health. The basic requirement per person per day is 20 to 40 liters of water free from harmful contaminants and pathogens for the purposes of drinking and sanitation, rising to 50 liters when bathing and kitchen needs are considered.
This article is for beginners of this construction industry. Being a Construction Engineer / Structural Engineer we have to work with different type of steel section. Different type of steel sections are listed below and also mentioned how it designated along with examples.
1. ISJB - Indian Standard Junior Beams 2. ISLB - Indian Standard Light Weight Beams 3. ISMB - Indian Standard Medium Weight Beams 4. ISWB - Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams 5. ISHB - Indian Standard Heavy Weight Beams Beams will be designated by Type - Web size X Flange size (Eg. ISMB 600X210)
PARALLEL FLANGE BEAMS
1. NPB - Indian Standard Narrow Parallel Flange Beams. 2. WPB - Indian Standard Wide Parallel Flange Beams 3. UB - Universal Beams4. UC - Universal Columns Parallel Flange Beams will be designated by Type - Web size X Flange size X Unit Weight (Eg. UB 610X229X125)
1. ISA Indian Standard Equal Angle
2. ISUA Indian Standard Un Equal Angle
Angles will be designated by Type – Face1 size X Face2 size X Thickness (Eg. ISA 100X100X6)
1. ISJC Indian Standard Junior Channel 2. ISLC Indian Standard Light Weight Channel 3. ISMC Indian Standard Medium Weight Channel Channels will be designated by Type –Web size X Flange size (Eg. ISMC 100X50) RAILS
1. ISCR Indian Standard Crane Rail 2. ISHR Indian Standard Heavy Rail Rails will be designated by Type –Head size (Eg. ISCR 100) PLATES
Plates will be designated by Thickness (Eg. Plate 10)
Flats will be designated by Width X Thickness (Eg. Flat 100X6) ROUND BAR
ISRO Indian Standard Round Round Bar will be designated by Diameter (Eg. ISRO 50) HEXAGON BAR
Hex.Bar will be designated by one side size (Eg. Hex. Bar 50) SQUARE BAR
Square Bar will be designated by one side size (Eg. Sq. Bar 100) SQUARE HOLLOW BAR
Square Hollow bar will be designated by Sq.Bar– Face1 size X Face size2 X Thickness (Eg. Sq.Bar 50X50X2) RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTION
Rectangular Hollow bar will be designated by Rect. Bar– Face1 size X Face size2 X Thickness (Eg.Rect. Sq.Bar 100X50X2)
Hope this information may useful to you. More details like unit weight and other properties will follow my next articles. Wish you all the best.
Self opened a Blog to discuss about Construction Works & Structural Engineering. Basic concept to open this Blog is to share the Engineering Information’s and enhance the computer knowledge to others.
When I recall about my initial periods during construction site self struggled to get the information from seniors. Some times they will guide us wrongly and purposefully (Afterwards I Understood that those mistakes we should not repeat in future). To avoid such a situation self started collecting the information as much as possible and sharing the information with my subordinates and new comers of this industry.
From this blog self would like to share the Technical data's. I Hope that all of you will get the benefit.