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Sunday, December 9, 2012

PROPERTIES OF ISWB

Dear Readers,
 
This is continuation with my earlier post "Unit Weight of ISWB, self would like to post the sectional properties of ISWB. (Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams)
 
Properties of beams are having two parts. One part is Physical dimensions and another part is sectional properties of Beam. Basically dimensional part contains depth and width of section, Thickness of Web and Flange and Root Radius. Where as sectional properties contains Moment of Inertia, Radius of Gyration and Section Modulus. These are useful for design engineers.
 
Click on Picture to enlarge
For More Details about Sectional Properties click Sect-Prop.
For More Details about Unit Weight of Wide Flange Beam Click ISWB
For More Details about Other Steel Sections Click Steel
For More Details about Indian Standard of Hot Rolled Steel Click ISI
For More Details about Classification of Hot Rolled Steel Click IS:808
 
Best Quote:- "PEOPLE WITH GOALS SUCCEED BECAUSE THEY KNOW WHERE THEY ARE GOING". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, November 11, 2012

UNIT WEIGHT OF CRANE RAILS

Dear Readers, Wish You a Happy Diwali - 2012
Crane rail shall be designated by the letters ISCR followed by the head width of the rail section.  For shop marking and drawing office purpose abbreviated reference symbol CR instead of ISCR may be used. It is designated as per Indian Standard IS:3443
 
It shall have a minimum tensile strength of 710MPa (72kgf /sq mm) and Unit weight shall be measured by Kg/meter. Some other non metric standard rails are available in market. It shall designated based on the weights per meter. Dimensions, Other properties and unit weight of non metric standards will  be followed my next post.  
 
Unit weight of standard Crane rails are as follows.

For More Details about other Steel Structures Click Steel
For More Details about Hollow Steel Structure Click HSS
For More Details about Tee Steel Click Tee
For More Detail about European Steel Section Click European
Best Quote: "Little adjustment is always better than a lengthy argument. A meaningful silence is always better than a meaningless words". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Torque for HT / HSFG Bolts

Dear Readers,Wish You a Happy Durga Pooja.
 
Based on my previous posts you may familiar with grades of bolt, torque of bolt, torque calculations and slip factors. However it is a real challenge in construction industry to determine the torque for bolts. Technically it is based on the applications. Some times client mentioned in drawings or you may get it from technical specifications but most of the times both are missed out. Given below is an ideal chart. This is one of my rare collections. Hope it will be very useful to all engineers.

 
For More Details about Torque Click my Previous Post Torque
For More Details about Grade of Bolts Click my Previous Post Grade
For More Details about Torque Calculations Click Calculation
For More Details about Slip Factor/Nut Factor Click Nut Factor
 
Best Quote: "Search a beautiful heart not a beautiful face. Beautiful things are not always good but good things are always beautiful".

Sunday, September 30, 2012

Properties of ISJB

Dear Readers,
This is continuation with my earlier post "Unit Weight of ISJB", self would like to post the sectional properties of ISJB. This will be good alternate for ISMB and ISLB.

Properties of beams are having two parts. One part is Physical dimensions and another part is sectional properties of ISJB. Basically dimensional part contains depth and width of section, Thickness of Web and Flange and Root Radius. Where as sectional properties contains Moment of Inertia, Radius of Gyration and Section Modulus. These are useful for design engineers.

Click on picture to view enlarge

For More Details about Unit Weight of Junior Beam Click ISJB
For More Details about Sectional Properties Click Properties
For More Details about Other Steel Sections Click Steel
For More Details about Classification of Hot Rolled Steel Click IS:808
For More Details about Indian Standards of Rolled Steel Click ISI

Best Quote."Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it." Have a Nice Day

Saturday, September 15, 2012

Unit Weight of ISMCP

Dear Readers,
Wish You a Happy Engineer Day-2012

In continuation with my earlier post of ISMC, Let us discuss about ISMCP (Indian Standard Medium Weight parallel Flanged Channel)


This is one of the standardized categories of hot-rolled steel Channel section. This is same as medium weight channel, all dimensions are same as medium weight channel However radius of channel flange is varying . It is parallel flange rather than a tapered flange.

It is also identified as a PFC (Parallel Flange Channel). It is designated as web size and flange size with prefix of MCP and having sizes from 75mm to 400mm. Example is MCP 300 X 84, where 300 is web size and 84 is flange size.
For More Details about Unit weight of Medium weight Channel Click ISMC
For More Details about Unit Weight of Junior Channel Click ISJC
For More Details about Unit Weight of Light Weight Channel Click ISLC
For More Details about Classification of Hot Rolled Steel Click IS:808

Best Quote."You will Never get a Second chance to make the First Impression". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Grade of Bolts

Dear Readers,
Being a construction engineer, we very often use the bolts. Generally the grades of bolts are starts from 4.6 to 12.9. Also known as Ordinary bolt (Commercial Grade),  HT Bolt (High Tension) & HSFG Bolts (High Strength Friction Grip).

The bolt designation system is based on two numbers. The first number represents the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt, 400 MPa, 800 MPa or 1200 MPa respectively. The second number represents the point at which the bolt will permanently stretch. A 4.6 grade bolt permanently stretches at 60% of its ultimate, an 8.8 grade bolt at 80% and a 12.9 grade bolt at 90 % of its ultimate.

Technically it can be quoted that the first number is the tensile strength of the bolt material (N2 )/100. The second number is = 1/100.(the ratio of the Proof (or Yield ) stress and the Tensile strength expressed as a percentage = 100.[Yield (Proof stress) /Tensile strength] /100

For Example the tensile and proof strength of the steel for a 8.8 bolt is therefore calculated as follows
Tensile strength = 8 X 100 N/mm2 = 800 N/mm2 and Proof strength = 0.8*800 * 100 /100 = 640 N/mm2 (generally speaking 80% of 800N/mm2)

The lowest grade is 4.6, commonly known as commercial grade. Next comes grade 8.8, known as structural grade, and finally, the highest grade is 12.9, known as HT / HSFG bolt.
Available grade of bolts are 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9 & 12.9

For More Details about Torque Click Torque
For More Details about Torqe Calculation Click Calculation
For More Details about Slip Factor Click Factor

Best Quote. "Try not to become a man of success but a man of value". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, August 5, 2012

Properties of ISMB

This is continuation with my earlier post unit weight of ISMB, self would like to post the sectional properties of ISMB. My earlier post, Unit weight of ISMB has been one of the popular post. In the same way, I am expecting this post would be a next popular post and also helpful to all engineeres. 

Properties of beams are having two parts. One part is Physical dimensions and another part is sectional properties of ISMB.Basically dimensional part contains depth and width of section, Thickness of Web and Flange and Root Radius. Where as sectiononal properites contains Moment of Inertia, Radius of Gyration and Section Modulus. These are usefull for design engineers.

For View Table, Please Click on Picture

For More Details about Unit Weight of Medium Weight Beam Click ISMB
For More Details about Sectional Properties Click Properties




Best Quote "Never change your originality for the sake of others, because no one can play your role better than you. So be yourself, because whatever you are, YOU are the best". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Sectional Properties

Important and common sectional properties of rolled steels are Moment of Inertia, Radius of gyration & Elastic Modulus. The purpose of usage and definitions are below. Generally, the centimetre (cm) is used for the calculated properties.

Moment Of Inertia (I)
Area Moment of Inertia, also known as Second Moment of Inertia - I, is a property of shape that is used to predict deflections and stresses in beams. The larger the Moment of Inertia the less the beam will bend. The moment of inertia is a geometrical property of a beam and depends on a reference axis and has been calculated taking into account all tapers, radii and fillets of the sections.
Radius of gyration (r)
The radius of gyration is a parameter used in buckling calculation. It can be calculated by roots of Moment of Inertia divided by Area
r = (I / A)1/2
Elastic modulus (Z)


The elastic modulus is used to calculate the moment capacity based on the design strength of the section or the stress at the extreme fibre of the section from a known moment. It is derived as follows:
Z =I/e
Where e is the distance to the extreme fibre of the section from the elastic neutral axis.

Other sectional properties are used in engineering are
Buckling parameter (u), Torsional index (x), Warping constant (H), Torsion constant (J), Plastic modulus (S), Torsion modulus constant
Best Quote. "The only true wisdom is knowing that you know nothing". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, July 1, 2012

UNIT WEIGHT OF NORMAL TEE

Dear Readers in continuation with my earlier post of ISNT , ISDT & Slit tee, self would like to post unit weight of normal tee as per European Standard.

Above shown table is as per EN 10083-3. Sizes available are from 30mm to 140mm and thickness varies from 3mm to 15mm

For More Details about Indian Standard Tee Click TEE Section
For More Details about Unit Weight of Nominal Tee Click ISNT
For More Details about Unit Weight of Deep Leg Tee Click ISDT
For More Details about Slit Tee Click IS:1173
Best Quote.
" When one door closes another opens. But often we look so long so regretfully upon the closed door that we fail to see the one that has opened for us." Have a Nice Day

Sunday, June 17, 2012

NUT Factor / Slip Factor


Dear readers, in continuation with my previous post, Let us discuss about the Coefficient of friction

The basic formula T = K x D x P stated earlier takes these factors into account and provides users with a starting point for establishing an initial target tightening torque. The K factor in this formula is always an estimate. That is the coefficient of friction, frequently referred to as the "Nut factor." / “Slip Factor “


The value of this factor indicates that harder, smoother, and/or slicker bolting surfaces, such as threads and bearing surfaces, require less rotational force (torque) to stretch (tension) a bolt than do softer, rougher, and stickier surfaces
If Surface is not treated Slip factor is 0.20
If Surface is blasted, any loose rust removed, no pitting than Slip factor is 0.50
If Surface is blasted and hot tip galvanised than Slip factor is 0.10
If Surface is blasted and painted than slip factor is 0.30
The most commonly used bolting K factors arc 0.20 for plain finished bolts, 0.22 for zinc plated bolts, and 0.10 for waxed or highly lubricated bolts.
For More details about Torque Click Torque
For More Details of Torque Calculation Click Tor-Cal



Best Quote."Planning without action is futile. Action without planning is fatal". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Bolt Torque Calculations

Dear readers in continuation with my previous post, Let us discuss about the “What torque should be given for the Bolts?”
The only way to properly determine the optimum tightening torque for a given application is to simulate the exact application. This should be done with a tension indicating device like Torque Wrench or Spanner. The widely recognized engineering formula is T= K x D x P

T=Target tighten torque
K= Coefficient of friction (nut factor / Slip Factor), always an estimation in this formula
D = Bolts nominal diameter
P = Clamp Load or Bolt's desired tensile load (generally 75% of yield strength)

Above Three factors affect how much tension occurs when a given amount of tightening torque is applied. The first factor is the bolt's diameter. Naturally M24 bolts take more force to tighten than M16 bolt. The second factor is the bolt's grade. It takes more force to stretch a 10.9 Grade bolt than it does to stretch an 8.8 Grade bolt because of the greater material strength. The third factor is the coefficient of friction often called as nut factor and it is always estimation.
Keep in mind this is only an estimated value. It may provide satisfactory performance, but it also may not. It is extremely important to realize that this tightening value is valid only so long as all of the aspects of the application remain constant. Don’t think if you are giving more torque means it is good for structure / application, because during the torque operation bolt will be stretched. If more stretched than required it may be broken. So each and every application should be evaluated on its own to determine the optimum torque value for each application. If you are not aware please refer the manufacturer recommendations & Technical specification or use above formula with contingency.
Co-Efficient of Friction / Slip factor or Nut Factor details will be followed my Next Post.

For More details about Torque Click Torque
Best Quote :"Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, May 27, 2012

Unit Weight of Slit Tee


In continuation with my earlier post let us discuss about Slit Tee. It is similar to ISNT by the shape, However Slit tees are made by splitting a beam down the web yielding a pairs of Tee.

ISMT’s are slit from ISMB (Medium Weight Beams) and ISHT’s are slit from ISHB.Based on the requirement it is cut from universal Beam and universal column.

Slit Tee Bars are classified as per IS 1173: 1978.Unit Weights of Slit Tee's are below.
For More Information about Tee Sections Click  TEE
For Unit Weight of Nominal Tee Click  ISNT
For Unit Weight of Deep Legged Tee Click ISDT
For More Details about Hot Rolled Steel Click IS : 808

Best Quote. "Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak. Courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen " Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, May 20, 2012

TORQUE

Dear Readers,

Being a Construction Engineer, We often used a word "Torque" during tighten the bolts. Let us discuss about Torque.

Torque is a force that tends to rotate or turn things. You can generate a torque any time that you apply a force by using a wrench / Spanner. When you use a wrench, you apply a force to the handle. This force creates a torque on the nut, which tends to turn the nut.
Torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or Nut. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt.

The torque units contain a distance and a force. To calculate the torque, you just multiply the force by the distance from the centre. English units of torque are pound-inches (lbf.in) or pound-feet (lbf.ft.); the SI unit is the Newton-meter (Nm); the Metric unit is Kilogram Force Meter (Kgf.m) / (Kgm)

Torque Conversion factors
Newton Meter (Nm) to Foot Pounds (lbf.ft) = [1Nm = 0.738 lbf.ft]
Kilogram Force Meter (Kgf.m) to Newton Meter (Nm)=[1 Kgm=9.80 Nm]

How to calculate the Torque and Torque Values  / Charts will be followed my Next Post
Best Quote. "Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today" Have a Nice Day.

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Elliptical Hollow Section (EHS)

Dear Readers, Wish you a Happy Mayday.

In recent years Elliptical hollow sections (EHS) have emerged to the hot-finished product range for tubular construction.

It is relatively new shape of high strength and it is attracted significant attention from engineers and architects owing to their complementary qualities of aesthetic appearance and structural efficiency. The distinctive varying curvature around the section is not only aesthetically appealing but also offers differing flexural rigidities about the two principal axes and high torsional stiffness. This cross-section creates an interesting alternative for engineers and architects in a broad range of design applications. It is also called Ellipcon section. They come in two shapes

1. Ellipcon section (Is an Ellipse)
2. Semi Ellipcon section (Half of an ellipse / D-Shape)

Both shapes are given the structure very outstanding architectural looks and the section having much structural advantage as it is like hollow section. Some of the advantages are listed below
• These Ellipcon sections are good alternate to traditional sections and they have all structural properties similar to hot hollow sections
• EHS (Elliptical Hollow Section) have greater bending capacity than the CHS (Circular Hollow Section) of the same area / Weight

• For structures with limited space these new section might provide design solution and increasing the open floor area

• For Non-Symmetric load situations this section would be more cost effective

The Ellipcon sections have constant external dimension with in the same size only thickness is increasing. EHS are generally produced with major to minor outside dimensions of 2:1
It is designated as Width X Height X Thickness, Weight is measured Kg/meter. Unit Weight of both sections will be followed my next post

For More Details about Other Hollow Section Please Click HSS
For More Details about Other Steel Section Please Click Steel
Best Quote. "Never lose faith in yourself; you can do anything in the universe". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Units of Mass


Being a construction engineer we are very often used to measure weight of steel is either Kilogram (Kg) or Metric ton (t). If kilogram is further divided we may know it is grams. If gram is further divided we may not know the units.

Some of the unit of mass are gram (gm), micro gram (µg), milligram (mg), centigram (cm), decigram (dg), dekagram (dag), hectogram (hg), kilogram (kg), mega-gram (Mg) or metric ton (t), grain, pennyweight (dwt), ounce (oz), pound (lb), dram (dr), short & long hundredweight (cwt), short & long ton, scruple (s), carat (c), gamma (y).

It is very interesting if we know other industry how they are measuring. Other than Metric unit of mass are as follows

Troy Mass (Used for measure Gold & Silver)
Avoirdupois Mass (Used for goods / based on pounds)
Apothecaries Mass ( Used in Pharmacy)
Do You want to know about Specific Gravity click Gravity
Do You want to know about Building Materials Click Building
Best Quote:-" To Succeed, We must first believe that We Can" Have a Nice Day.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Unit Weight of ISDT

Indian Standard Rolled Deep Legged Tee

In continuation with my earlier posts of Tee section and ISNT, let us see about the ISDT. This is similar to Normal tee bar, However the legs are dissimilar ( Height and Width are not Equal). It is having only two sizes. ISDT 100 & ISDT 150. Unit Weights are as Follows

For More Details about Tee Sections Click TEE
For More Details about Normal Tee Click ISNT
For More Details about Indian Standards of Rolled Steel Click Steel

Best Quote.

Before we can LEAD, we must SERVE
Before we can SERVE, we must PREPARE
Before we can PREPARE, we must LEARN
Before we can LEARN, we must LISTEN
Before we can LISTEN, we must be SILENT.

Have a Nice Day

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Flat

The flat carbon steel is a hot or cold rolled strip product also known as a plate product. Flats are actually thin strips of mild steel having the thickness of the strip commonly varying between 10mm to 200mm and the thin flat rolled flat rolled product's size varies from 3 mm to 10 mm.  

Steel flats are produced by the utilization of relatively smooth, cylindrical rolls on rolling mills. Generally the width to thickness ratio of flat rolled products is fairly large. Various grades and sizes of materials can be selected to meet diversified requirements for automobiles, appliances, construction etc.,

Flats are designated by Width and Thickness. For Example 100mm width and 6 mm thickness is designated as " FLAT 100X6". Unit Weight of Flats will be followed on my next post

For More Details about other Steel section Click Steel
For More Details about classification of Hot Rolled Steel Click Hot Rolled

Best Quote."The greatest barrier to success is the fear of failure" Have a Nice Day

Sunday, March 4, 2012

Unit Weight of ISNT

ISNT- Indian Standard rolled Nominal Tee Bar


In continuation with Tee-Section article let us see about the unit weights of ISNT. This is one type of Hot Rolled Steel and having shape like a Capital letter " T ". Sections are available from 20mm to 150mm and thickness varies from 3mm to 10mm.Unit Weight of ISNT is as follows

For More details about Tee Section Click Tee
For More Details about Hot Rolled Steel Click IS 808


Best Quote. "Success is never final. Failure is never fatal. It’s courage that counts". Have a Nice Day

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Indian Standards of Rolled Steel Products

Relevant Indian Standard Codes for Rolled Steels.


All steel sections are manufactured with some standards with respect to their countries. Hot Rolled Steel Products like Beam, Column, Channel, Tee Bars, Bulb angles, strips, flats, Round & Squares. Indian Standards which give nominal dimensions of rolled steel products are as follows


For More Details about Hot Rolled Steel Click IS 808
For More Details about Tee Section Click IS 1173
For More Details about Other Steel Sections Click Steel


Best Quote.“Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” Have a Nice Day 

Sunday, February 5, 2012

Unit Weight of ISJC

Indian Standard Junior Channel

In continuation with my earlier post of ISMC & ISLC this is also one of the standardized categories of hot-rolled steel Cahnnel section.

 

This is tapered flange Channel and it is having limited sizes from 100mm to 200mm. It is similar to ISMC & ISLC, however the thickness of Web & Flange is lesser then ISMC.


1. ISJC 200 X 70 - 13.90
2. ISJC 175 X 60 - 11.20
3. ISJC 150 X 55 - 9.90
4. ISJC 125 X 50 - 7.90
5. ISJC 100 X 45 - 5.80


For Unit Weight of Medium Chanel Click ISMC
For Unit Weight of Light Weight Channel Click ISLC
For More Details of Classification of Rolled Steel Click IS:808


Best Quote.
"May the happiest of people don't necessarily have the best of everything; they just make the most of every thing that comes along their way". Have a Nice Day


Thursday, January 26, 2012

Tee Sections

Welcome to my blog’s 50th posting!Thank You Readers.

I had no idea how many I’d done; but my site’s Blog Archive said the last one was the 49th,(2010-20 Posts, 2011-26 Posts & 2012-3 Posts) so this must be the 50th.

I am so grateful to everyone who reads my blog. I have no way of knowing who you are unless you leave a comment, but please know I’m very, very thankful to each and every one of you.

On this special occassion let us discuss about the special shape steel.Hot Rolled Steel Slit Steel Tee Bars

Tee Sections are one type of hot rolled steel and shaped like a Capital letter T. It is having two types. One is manufacture by hot rolled steel and another one is split from I- beam & H-Beam. Split Tees are made by splitting a beam down the web yielding a pair of Tee’s

Indian Standard Hot Rolled Steel Tee Bars may be classified as follows and it is as per IS 1173: 1978

1. Indian Standard Rolled Normal Tee bars (ISNT)

2. Indian Standard Rolled Deep Legged Tee bars (ISDT)

3. Indian Standard Slit Light Weight Tee bars (ISLT)

4. Indian Standard Slit Medium Weight Tee bars (ISMT)

5. Indian Standard Slit Tee bars from H-Sections (ISHT)

Tee-Sections are designated by the respective abbreviations followed by their depth. Example Rolled Normal Tee Bar of depth 50mm is designated by ISNT 50
 
For more details about other hot rolled steel Click IS 808

Best Quote.
 
"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new". Have a Nice Day
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