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Sunday, December 18, 2016

Unit Weight of Chinese Channel

Dear Readers,

Generally Chinese Steel Grades Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255 and Q275 are used for Structural works. steel grades by the yield point of the letter on behalf of (Q) and yield point value is mentioned and sub grade A, B, C & D are used for further classification. For Example Q235A means, it is a carbon steel and yield strength is 235 Mpa

For Steel section Channel is mentioned as "C"; Angles are mentioned as "L" and Beams are mentioned as “I “or “H " followed by number. To find out the size of section is number multiple by 10 is the size of member.

For Example C16 means Channel 160 mm depth. Similarly H10 means H section 100 mm depth.

If the same size but width or Flange size is different then suffix a, b, c is shown. For example C20a & C20b, Both are 200 Channel however flange is 73 and 75 mm respectively. C20a means Channel 200 X 73 and C20b means Channel 200 X 75.

Unit Weight of Chinese standard Channel is as below.
For More Details about Chinese Standard Steel Click Here
For More details about Unit Weight of Other Channel section Click Here

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Grades of Rust for Steel Structure

Dear Readers,
 
Rust is having important role to finalaise the surface preparation for steel structure before painting. Four Rust grades, designated A, B, C and D respectively, are specified. The rust grades  are defined as follows
 
Grade-A : It is mainly adhering mill scale, but little rust
Grade-B : It is rusting and flaking of mill scale has begun
Grade-C : The mill scale is rushing away, with slight pitting
Grade-D : The mill scale has rusted away, with general pitting
 
Rust Grade photographs are as follows

GRADE-A
 
Steel Surface largely covered with adhering mill scale but little, if any, rust.
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
GRADE-B
 
Steel Surface which has begun to rust and form which the mill scale has begun to flake. 
 
 


 
 
 
GRADE-C
 
Steel Surface on which the mill scale has rusted away or from which it can be scraped, but with slight pitting visible under normal vision.
 
 
 

GRADE-D
Steel Surface on which the mill scale has rusted away and on which general pitting is visible under normal vision.
 
 
 
For More Details about Surface Preparation of Structural Steel Click Here
 

Sunday, November 6, 2016

Properties of ISLC


Dear Readers,

This is continuation with my earlier post unit weight of ISLC, self would like to post the sectional properties of ISLC.

Properties of beams are having two parts. One part is Physical dimensions and another part is sectional properties of Beam. Basically dimensional part contains depth and width of section, Thickness of Web and Flange and Root Radius. Where as sectional properties contains Moment of Inertia, Radius of Gyration and Section Modulus. These are useful for design engineers.

Click on picture to enlarge

For More Details about Sectional Properties Click Sectional
For More Details about  Steel Sections Click Steel
For More Details about Classification of Hot Rolled Steel Click IS 808

Best Quote :
Never Think Hard about PAST, It brings Tears...
Don't Think more about FUTURE, It
brings Fears...
Live this Moment with a Smile, It brings Cheers.!!!!

Sunday, October 16, 2016

Small Numbers

Dear Readers,

This is continuation with my earlier post of numbers and Big Numbers. All Small Numbers we know is below.

Name
As a Power of 10
As a Decimal
thousandths
10-3
0.001
millionths
10-6
0.000 001
billionths
10-9
0.000 000 001
trillionths
10-12
etc ...
quadrillionths
10-15

quintillionths
10-18

sextillionths
10-21

septillionths
10-24

octillionths
10-27

nonillionths
10-30

decillionths
10-33

undecillionths
10-36

duodecillionths
10-39

tredecillionths
10-42

quattuordecillionths
10-45

quindecillionths
10-48

sexdecillionths
10-51

septemdecillionths
10-54

octodecillionths
10-57

novemdecillionths
10-60

vigintillionths
10-63

 
For More Details about Numbers Click Here
For More Details about Big Numbers Click Here
 
Best Quote :
Life ends when u stop dreaming
Hope ends when u stop believing
Love ends when u stop caring
So Dream, Believe & Care...... Life is Really Beautiful. Have a Nice Day

Sunday, October 2, 2016

Speed of Winds

Dear Readers,

Wish You a Happy Gandhi Jayanthi

This is continuation of my earlier post " Wind Speeds". As you are aware Wind Speeds are classified as calm, light, Breeze, Gale, Storm and Hurricane. Also note that Breeze, Gale & Storm are further classified as Light, Moderate & Strong. Wind speed is now commonly measured with an anemometer.

Unit of Measurement for Wind speed is
meter per Second (m/s)
kilometers per hour (km/h)
miles per hour (mph) &
Knot (unit)
Below table shows the different units of wind classes
 
For More Details about Wind Direction Click Here
For More Details about Beaufort Scale Click Here 
For More Details about Precautions during Flood Click Here
For More Details about Characteristics of Wind Click Here
 

 
Best Quote : Always Welcome Your Problems, Because Problems Gives You Dual Advice, Firstly, You Can Know How To Solve Them, Secondly, You Learn How To Avoid Them In Future. Have a Nice Day

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Welding Symbol

Dear Readers,

Wish You a Happy Engineer's Day-2016

During Construction at site, we are very often reading drawings and encountered the interpretation of welding symbol. Now let us discuss about welding symbols and special instructions.

Like other aspects of drafting, there’s a set of symbols for welding to simplify the communication between designer and builder (i.e. the site engineer / welder). This language may seem a little strange at first, so it's best to learn it one symbol at a time. These figures represent the core structure of every drafting specification for a weld to be performed. The welding symbol has an arrow, which points to the location on the drawing where a weld is required.

Welding Symbol having three lines. Out of three lines two is must and one is optional.
   1. Reference Line (Required Element)
   2. Arrow Line (Required Element)
   3. Tail (Optional Element)

Below mentioned sketch shows the lines, for better understanding purpose we indicated in different color.
Reference Line : It is always Horizontal Line, One end connected with Arrow line and another end connected with Tail.

Arrow Line : One end of arrow line connects to reference line and another end (Arrow side) points to a joint, which clearly identify the proposal of joint or Location or Weld area

Tail : It is a optional line and it is used to indicate the supplementary information to be used for welding or cutting or finishing process. Note that this tail may omitted when reference is not used.

Some of the drawing mentioned N/S or F/S or NS or FS. It means Near Side or Far Side. Near side means, Welding should be done where the arrow is shown. Far side means, Welding should be done another side or Opposite side of the arrow is shown.
Some of the special instruction, Drawing representation and welding symbols are as follows.
All in one like Welding symbol, drawing representation and special instruction, are mentioned in below sketch. Click on picture to enlarge.
 
For More Details about Welding Electrode Classification click Here
For More Details about Weld metal deposition click Here

Hope all readers are benefitted this article. Have a Nice Day

Sunday, September 4, 2016

SWL for Mechanically Spliced Slings

Dear Readers,

During Rigging operations in construction we must know the SWL (Safe Working Load) of Rope and Tackles used. Some times we have to fabricate the sling from wire rope and suitably spliced. Permissible Load Lifting Capacity of Individual Slings fibre-core and mechanically spliced. Diameter of wire rope is in Inches and SWL is in MT
 
 
Size of Rope  = SWL
 
1). 1/2 "   =  1.196 MT
 
2). 5/8" = 2.133 MT
 
3). 3/4" = 2.683 MT
 
4). 1 " = 4.783 MT
 
5). 1 1/4" = 8.50 MT
 
6). 1 1/2" = 10.75 MT
 
7). 1 5/8" = 13.266MT
 
8). 1 3/4" = 15.383MT

 
 
 
 
It is always advised to take a load test by competent person / authorized agency before commencement of spliced sling in to operation/ Erection.
 
For More Details about SWL Click Here
For More Details about Steel Wire Rope Click Here 
Best Quote :
To be Successful in life, Forget the problems that you faced.. But, don't forget the lessons that you learnt from those problems. Have a Nice Day

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Chinese Steel Standards

Dear Readers,

As you well aware due to globalization all works has been very competitive and it is helping us to exchange of knowledge and standards, in this scenario Chinese works are having more impact and competition throughout the world. Now it is very essential to know the Chinese standards and how it is indicated in drawings. Let us discuss how to identify and compare with our standards.
All Chinese standards are having prefix GB like IS for Indian Standard, JIS for Japanese. For Construction related works and other works different Chinese standards are followed, which are listed below.
 
GB = GuojiaBiaozhun ( National Standard in Chinese)
SY = Shi You (Petroleum)
JB = JianBiao (Construction Standard)
GB/T = T : Tuijian (recommended GB)
HG = HuaGong (PetroChemical)
Chinese standards for General structural steel (including chequred steel) is GB/T 700-2006. Grade of materials available is Q235 (A/B/C/D); Q275 (A/B/C/D).
Generally Chinese Steel Grades are Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255 and Q275 is used for Structural works. steel grades by the yield point of the letter on behalf of (Q) and yield point value is mentioned and sub grade A, B, C & D are used for further classification. For Example Q235A means, it is a carbon steel and having maximum yield strength of 235 Mpa.
For Steel section Channel is mentioned as "C"; Angles are mentioned as "L" and Beams are mentioned as “I “or “H " followed by number. To find out the size of section is number multiple by 10 is the size of member.
For Example C16 means Channel 160 mm depth. Similarly H10 means H section 100 mm depth.
If the same size but width or flange size is different then suffix a, b, c is shown. For example C20a & C20b, Both are 200 Channel however flange is 73 and 75 mm respectively. C20a means Channel 200 X 73 and C20b means Channel 200 X 75.
For More Details about European Steel Section Click Here
For More Details about Classification of Indian Steel Click Here
For More Details about Indian Standard for Rolled Steel Click Here

Sunday, August 7, 2016

Never Ever Give Up

Dear Readers,
 
Construction Industry is always having new issues / problems and all are not symmetric. Every time it is different. Solution is always fight for each issues and will have a result. Hence never ever give up. Below picture is best example.
 
 
Do not surrender whatever you are fighting for whatever trials you are going through.

For More Self Explanatory pictures please click Here
  

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Surface Preparation for Structural Steel

Dear Readers,

Effective life of coating of anti-corrosive paint applied to a steel surface is to a very large extent dependent on how thoroughly the surface has been prepared prior to painting.
 
Removing contamination and increasing surface roughness will allow maximum bond strength and adhesion to develop between coating and substrate. If the coating is applied to a well prepared substrate, they will have strong adhesion to that substrate and may be able to withstand these condition.
 
Coating performance is directly related to the quality of surface preparation.
 
Method of Surface Preparation 
1.       High Pressure Fresh Water Washing
2.       Solvent Cleaning or Degreasing
3.       Manual methods of Surface Preparation
4.       Power tool Methods of Surface Preparation
5.       Dry Abrasive Blasting
6.       Rotary or Wheelabrator blasting
7.       Slurry Blasting
8.       Hydro blasting
Blasting Standards
1.       ISO Standard (8501-1)
2.       Swedish Standards ( SIS 05 59 00)
3.       Steel Structure Painting Council Standards (SSPC-SP)
4.       British Standards Institution (BS4232)
5.       NACE Standards (National Association of Corrosion Engineers)
6.       JSRA Standards (Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan)
7.       Major Local Shipyard Standards

Sunday, July 3, 2016

Wire Gauge Table

Dear Readers,
 
Gauge systems and are used to represent the thickness of the wire or diameter of the wire. In Great Britain wire gage has been legalized. Following gauges are available in industrial usage. 

   1. British Sheet & Hoop Iron Standard Gauge (Birmingham Gauge)
   2. U.S.Standard Gauge for Sheet & Plate Iron & Steel
   3. Birmingham Wire Gauge (or Stabs'iron  wire or Warrington Gauge)
   4. British Imperial Standard Wire Gauge
   5. American Steel & Wire Co.(or Washborn & Moen or Rocbling or Steel Wire Gauge)
   6. Washbrn & Moen Steel Music Wire Gauge
   7. New American Steel & Wire Co. music Wire Gauge
   8. American or Brown & Sharpe Wire Gauge
Dimensions of above said wire gauges are listed below. Specific usage are mentioned bottom of the table (Represented as Column-2, Column-3, etc.,). All dimensions are in mm. Click on Picture to enlarge
 
Column-2 : Used in great Britain for sheets and strips but in the United States only for strips (for black sheet see columns 3 and 4)
Column-3 : This gauge is used in the United States for black sheet
Column-4 : Used in Great Britain and the United States for wire (in the United States also used for black sheet and strips)
Column-5 : Used in Great Britain for iron and steel wire ; in the United States it is also used for copper wire.
Column-6 : The United States Bureau of Standards combines these gauges under the name " Steel Wire Gauge. "This is the most widely used gauge for wire in the United States.
Column-7 & 8 : For music wire
Column-9 : Used in the United States for nonferrous wire and sheets. The fractions have been approximated. 
Overall as the gauge number decreases, the thickness of the wire increases. Note that 000000 are pronounced " Six aught" . Similarly is an abbreviation for 0000 is pronounced " four aught" and so on.
 

Sunday, June 5, 2016

Safe Working Load (SWL)

Dear Readers,

SWL is very important and essential for rigging & hoisting works during construction activities and sometimes stated as the Normal Working Load (NWL).
 
It is the mass or the force a piece of lifting equipment, lifting device or accessory can safely utilize to lift, suspend, or lower a mass without fear of breaking. Usually marked on the equipment by the manufacturer and is often 1/5 of the Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) although other fractions may be used such as 1/4, 1/6 and 1/10. 

The SWL is determined by dividing the minimum breaking strength (MBS) of a component by a safety factor assigned to that type and use of equipment. The safety factor generally ranges from 4 to 6 unless a failure of the equipment could pose a risk to life; in that instance the safety factor would be a 10.
For example, if a line has an MBS of 1,000 pounds and a safety factor of 5, then the SWL would be 200 pounds. 1000/5 = 200.  
Thumb Rule for Determination of SWL of Wire rope slings:
SWL = 8*D2; in Tons; Where D diameter of rope in inches.
Example:
1 Inch diameter rope 1*1*8 = 8 Tons
½ inch diameter rope 0.5*0.5*8 = 2 Tons
Other way to calculate the SWL of any wire rope by
  1. Obtained the Breaking strength of the wire rope as per the class.
  2. Consider the Safety factor (Generally taken 5 for wire rope, except taken 10 while use for lifting person)
  3. Divided the breaking Strength by Factor of safety.
 
For More Details about Safety Helmet Click Here

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